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Figure S1. Comparison of coefficients1 obtained from age, period, and cohort (APC) models of small for gestational age using the hierarchical APC random effects (HAPCRE) approach (GLMM) and the intrinsic estimator (IE) approach among singleton, term livebirths in the US from 1989–2010 (n = 67 552 524) by race/ethnicity/nativity.

1a1-a8 represent coefficients for maternal age, p1-p22 represent coefficients for period of birth, and c1-c29 represent coefficients for maternal birth cohort.

Figure S2. Probabilities of small for gestational age (SGA) by maternal age, period of birth, and maternal birth cohort (based on age-period-cohort models) among singleton livebirths in the US from 1989 to 2010 (n = 75 226 075).

Figure S3. Probabilities of low birthweight (LBW) by maternal age, period of birth, and maternal birth cohort (based on age-period-cohort models) among singleton, term livebirths in the US from 1989 to 2010 (n = 67 552 524).

Figure S4. Probabilities of preterm birth (PTB) by maternal age, period of birth, and maternal birth cohort (based on age-period-cohort models) among singleton livebirths in the US from 1989 to 2010 (n = 75 265 369).

Figure S5. Percent term small for gestational age (<10th percentile of weight for age) by age, period, and cohort among singleton, term (≥37 weeks gestation) livebirths to non-Hispanic black mothers from 1989 to 2010 in the US (n = 9 849 337).

Table S1. Coefficients and 95% confidence intervals for age, period, and cohort (APC) groups from APC logit models of small for gestational age (SGA) among singleton, term livebirths in the US from 1989 to 2010 (n = 67 552 524), stratified by race/ethnicity/nativity.

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