In fast-growing Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel), cytosolic fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (aldolase; EC 188.8.131.52) was more highly active in elongating tissues than in tissues that had already finished elongating. It is well known that the removal of the culm sheath prevents bamboo from elongating. When the sheath was removed from the culm, the aldolase activity was gradually reduced over time. Two isozyme genes for aldolase, PpAldC1 and PpAldC2, were cloned from the elongating tissues of Moso bamboo. Gene expression analysis using a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that PpAldC1 was highly expressed in elongating tissues but was hardly detected in elongated internodes, while PpAldC2 seemed to be expressed constitutively in both elongating and elongated tissues. Promoter analysis revealed that the expression of PpAldC1 was induced by gibberellin. These results indicated that the two genes for cytosolic aldolase in Moso bamboo showed different expression patterns and that one of them was involved in shoot elongation.