Auxin controls many aspects of fruit development, including fruit set and growth, ripening and abscission. However, the mechanisms by which auxin regulates these processes are still poorly understood. While it is generally agreed that precise spatial and temporal control of auxin distribution and signaling are required for fruit development, the dynamics of auxin biosynthesis and the mechanisms for its transport to different fruit tissues are mostly unknown. Despite major advances in elucidating many aspects of auxin biology in vegetative tissues, until recently, the nature and importance of auxin metabolism, transport and signaling during fruit ontogeny remained obscure. In this review, we summarize recent research that has started to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which auxin is produced and transported in the fruit and to unravel the complexity of auxin signaling during fruit development. We also discuss recent approaches used to reveal the genes and regulatory networks that mediate cell and tissue-specific control of auxin levels in the developing fruit.