• Cephaleuros aucubae;
  • Cephaleuros biolophus;
  • Cephaleuros japonicus;
  • Cephaleuros microcellularis;
  • Cephaleuros virescens;
  • gamete;
  • seasonal development;
  • thallus;
  • zoospore


The infection cycle of five Cephaleuros species – C. aucubae, C. biolophus, C. japonicus, C. microcellularis, and C. virescens – was clarified by investigating seasonal development and gamete and zoospore behavior at study sites in Matsue, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Fresh thalli or lesions appeared on the leaves of various woody plants from August and continued to develop in general from April to September in the following year. Gametangia and zoosporangia matured on 2- and 3-year-old leaves. Gametes were released in C. microcellularis samples collected from late March to late May and in samples of the other four species collected from late April to late July. Zoospores were released in C. biolophus, C. japonicus, and C. virescens samples collected from mid-May to early August. In the present study, gametes did not conjugate but germinated like zoospores to produce new plants. After inoculation with zoospores and gametes that behave as asexual spores, fresh thalli or lesions became evident in 2–5 months following inoculation and gametes and zoospores were produced on the developed thalli or lesions the following year; one cycle of the infection was completed per year in the study area.