This paper describes a new diatom species, Aulacoseira calypsi Tremarin, Torgan & Ludwig, from specimens in plankton samples from Água Preta lake. This Amazonian lake is a shallow mesotrophic environment situated in northern Brazil. The species is characterized by long filaments united by spatulate linking spines, obovate to conic separation spines, a valve surface variably ornamented, straight striae on the mantle, a narrow ringleist, and one row of sessile rimoportulae near the ringleist. Aulacoseira calypsi's morphometric features are compared with the following similar species: Aulacoseira nygaardii (Camburn) Camburn & Charles, Aulacoseira lacustris (Grunow) Krammer, Aulacoseira coroniformis Pearce & Cremer, Aulacoseira occulta Siver & Hamilton, Aulacoseira lancea Siver & Hamilton, Aulacoseira gessneri (Hustedt) Simonsen, and Aulacoseira islandica (Müller) Simonsen. The species shares similarities as to frustule size, striation pattern, and narrowness of ringleist; but differs in the morphology of separation and linking spines, and the number and position of the rimoportulae.