Policy Studies Journal


Christopher M. Weible

School of Public Affairs,

University of Colorado Denver

Associate Editors

Peter deLeon, School of Public Affairs, University of Colorado Denver

Mark Lubell, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California Davis

Sean Nicholson-Crotty, Department of Political Science, University of Missouri

Mara Sidney, Department of Political Science, Rutgers University

Paul Teske, School of Public Affairs, University of Colorado Denver

Managing Editor

Mark W. Davis, School of Public Affairs, University of Colorado Denver

Editorial Board

Frank R. Baumgartner, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Frances Stokes Berry, Florida State University

Thomas A. Birkland, North Carolina State University

Dorothy M. Daley, University of Kansas

Richard C. Feiock, Florida State University

Brian J. Gerber, University of Colorado Denver

William T. Gormley Jr., Georgetown University

Elizabeth A. Graddy, University of Southern California

Donald P. Haider-Markel, University of Kansas

Tanya Heikkila, University of Colorado Denver

Robert Hoppe, University of Twente, Netherlands

Helen Ingram, University of California, Irvine Designated Chair

Hank Jenkins-Smith, University of Oklahoma

Peter John, University of Manchester, United Kingdom

Bryan D. Jones, University of Texas at Austin

Tomas M. Koontz, The Ohio State University

Mark Lubell, University of California, Davis

Laurence E. Lynn Jr., University of Texas at Austin

Peter J. May, University of Washington

Igor Mayer, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands

Daniel A. Mazmanian, University of Southern California

Lawrence M. Mead III, New York University

Michael Mintrom, University of Auckland, New Zealand

Éric Montpetit, Université de Montréal, Canada

M. Jae Moon, Yonsei University, South Korea

Sean C. Nicholson-Crotty, University of Missouri

Robert E. O'Connor, National Science Foundation

Elinor Ostrom, Indiana University

Wayne Parsons, Queen Mary, University of London

Matthew Potoski, Iowa State University

Sarah Pralle, Syracuse University

Paul Quirk, University of British Columbia

Jeremy John Richardson, University of Canterbury, New Zealand

Evan J. Ringquist, Indiana University

Jorge E. Rivera, George Washington University

Scott Robinson, Texas A&M University

Harrell R. Rodgers Jr., University of Houston

Paul A. Sabatier, University of California, Davis

Edella C. Schlager, University of Arizona

Anne L. Schneider, Arizona State University

John T. Scholz, Florida State University

Mara Sidney, Rutgers University

Steven Rathgeb Smith, University of Washington

Joseph Soss, University of Minnesota

Paul Teske, University of Colorado Denver

Aidan R. Vining, Simon Fraser University, Canada

David L. Weimer, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Eric Welch, University of Illinois at Chicago

Andrew B. Whitford, University of Georgia

Søren Winter, Danish National Centre for Social Research

Aims and Scope

The primary focus of the Policy Studies Journal (PSJ) is the study of public policy. Published on behalf of the Policy Studies Organization and the American Political Science Association's Public Policy Section, PSJ publishes individually submitted articles and symposia of exceptional quality by social scientists and other public policy researchers and leaders. The journal addresses a wide range of public policy issues at all levels of government, and welcomes a comparative approach. We accept a variety of manuscript types.

Copyright and Photocopying

© 2013 Policy Studies Organization. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior permission in writing from the copyright holder. Authorization to photocopy items for internal and personal use is granted by the copyright holder for libraries and other users registered with their local Reproduction Rights Organization (RRO), e.g., Copyright Clearance Center (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA (, provided the appropriate fee is paid directly to the RRO. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works or for resale. Special requests should be addressed to


The Publisher, Policy Studies Organization, and Editors cannot be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in this journal; the views and opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the Publisher, Policy Studies Organization, and Editors, neither does the publication of advertisements constitute any endorsement by the Publisher, PSO, and Editors of the products advertised.

Proceedings of the Policy Studies Organization are available online at