Upon taking office, President Barack Obama celebrated the apparent end of ideology in American politics. He celebrated too soon. Despite Obama's own disavowal of ideology, and the substantial continuities between his response to economic crisis and that of his Republican predecessor, ideology came roaring back into American public life in the remarkable 2009 Summer of Hate. Since then, anti-Statist crusaders on the right have forced the president, despite reelection, to the defensive, and presumably stale debates over the size of government and the sanctity of the market have once again figured prominently in national debate. This article explores the resurgence of anti-Statist ideology, arguing that the interventionist policies of Obama and George W. Bush constituted a regime crisis for the modern Republican Party and its allied extrapartisan institutions, which helps to explain the depth as well as breadth of recent efforts to reassert the relevance of free-market principles. Unlike Franklin Roosevelt, Obama's partisan forefather to whom he is frequently compared, Obama's freedom to maneuver has been seriously constrained by a network of “neoliberal” institutions and norms that was momentarily shaken, but not forsaken, in the financial crisis and ensuing recession.