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Why do we need to use a zero reference? Reference influences on the ERPs of audiovisual effects

Authors

  • Yin Tian,

    Corresponding author
    1. Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China
    2. Bio-information College, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, ChongQing, China
    • Address correspondence to: Yin Tian, Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, North Jianshe Road, Chengdu 610054, China. E-mail: yintian2010@gmail.com or Dezhong Yao, e-mail: dyao@uestc.edu.cn

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  • Dezhong Yao

    Corresponding author
    1. Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China
    • Address correspondence to: Yin Tian, Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, North Jianshe Road, Chengdu 610054, China. E-mail: yintian2010@gmail.com or Dezhong Yao, e-mail: dyao@uestc.edu.cn

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  • The authors would like to thank Dr. Brett Clementz for his comments improving the manuscript. The work was supported by the 973 Project 2011CB70783, NSFC (#91232725, #31100745, #61175117), the 863 Project 2012BAI16B02, the CQCBE Project KJ110502, the 11YJC880079, the GPA115005, the ZYGX2010J137, and the 111 Project.

Abstract

Using ERPs in the audiovisual stimulus, the current study is the first to investigate the influence of the reference on experimental effects (between two conditions). Three references, the average reference (AR), the mean mastoid (MM), and a new infinity zero reference (IR), were comparatively investigated via ERPs, statistical parametric scalp mappings (SPSM), and LORETA. Specifically, for the N1 (170–190 ms), the SPSM results showed an anterior distribution for MM, a posterior distribution for IR, and both anterior and posterior distributions for AR. However, the circumstantial evidence provided by LORETA is consistent with SPSM of IR. These results indicated that the newly developed IR could provide increased accuracy; thus, we recommend IR for future ERP studies.

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