• aquaculture;
  • control;
  • diseases;
  • probiotic;
  • resistance


Because of health and environmental concerns, the use of chemotherapeutic agents has been restricted in many countries over recent years. This restriction has resulted in a demand for alternative strategies to improve aquaculture production and enhance disease resistance. Among these options, probiotics, live micro-organisms that confer a health benefit to the host by providing both a nutritional benefit and protection against pathogens, represent an important option for the management of diseases and their use may replace some of the therapeutic chemicals commonly used in aquaculture. Our review explores the current state of knowledge on the impacts of probiotics on aquaculture, with particular emphasis on the criteria used for selection and evidence of their beneficial effects.