Over the last few decades, appreciable progress has been noted in canine semen assessment techniques. The common use of accurate and sensitive diagnostic methods, such as computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA), flow cytometry and sperm penetration tests have become routine procedures in specialized andrology laboratories. Many fluorescent probes have been applied to the assessment of specific sperm characteristics in dogs. Flow cytometry enables the observation of cell characteristics such as size, shape and function of the spermatozoon, that can be revealed by a fluorochrome or fluorescent label. The analysis of events detected on dot plots gives accurate and highly reliable information on membrane integrity, acrosomal status, mitochondrial activity, capacitation status, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and DNA damage. Despite the development of these modern and accurate tools, it is still questionable if the ideal method of semen evaluation, allowing predicting of the fertilizing potential of semen, has been established.