In dogs and cats, computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) was originally described almost 20 years ago. Subsequently, numerous CASA systems were validated and used for various applications in dogs and to a lesser extent in cats. CASA systems offer an accurate, rapid, objective and simultaneous assessment of different semen parameters allowing the visualization of subtle changes in sperm characteristics, which cannot be identified by conventional semen analysis. The main problems of these computerized measuring devices are the relatively high investment costs and the need for standardization and validation before any practical use is possible. In comparison with automated motility and concentration assessment, automated morphometry and morphology assessment is more complex and time-consuming. Once validated, CASA systems can be routinely used in veterinary centres for assessment of fertility and for the improvement of sperm diluters, cooling and cryopreservation procedures in dogs and cats. Furthermore, information obtained by CASA systems could also be important when monitoring for example the effect of environmental stress on spermatozoa and for toxicity studies. In cats, CASA is less documented, and most studies describe the characteristics of epididymal sperm, which is frequently used for in vitro fertilization in cats. Implementation of the CASA technique in cat reproduction could be interesting to further optimize assisted reproductive techniques in domestic cats and endangered wild felids.