During physiological pregnancy, all tissues and, mostly, placenta and foetus require high amounts of oxygen. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated both by mother and foetus, are implicated in foetal growth because they promote replication, differentiation and maturation of cells and organs. Nevertheless, ROS excess, if not properly counterbalanced, may lead to an alteration in cell constituents, with harmful effects both on mother and foetus.ROS exert a biphasic effect because adequate ROS concentration is essential for embryo development, implant, foetal defence against uterine infections, steroidogenesis, pregnancy maintainance and partum. On the other hand, an uncontrolled ROS generation, beyond physiological antioxidant defences, may lead to embryo resorption, placental degeneration with subsequent alteration in maternal-foetal exchanges, delay in foetal growth, pregnancy interruption, stillbirths. This review investigates the mechanisms underlying ROS generation and effects, throughout physiological and pathological pregnancy in sheep, with a look to antioxidants and their importance in such a critical phase of the reproductive cycle of the sheep.