Previous studies indicate that reproductive prolificacy of obese swine breeds is markedly influenced by embryo losses in early pregnancy. In such period, adequate secretion of progesterone (P4) by the ovary is essential for pregnancy success. This study analyses the luteal functionality during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy of Iberian sows and Large White x Landrace females, in terms of P4 secretion after in vitro culture of luteal tissue stimulated or not with luteinizing hormone (LH). The secretion of progesterone (expressed in ng/mg of luteal tissue or ng/mgLT) of the corpora lutea of obese Iberian swine was always hampered when compared to lean genotypes, either during early oestrous cycle (110.7 ± 37.8 vs 259.7 ± 10.2 ng/mgLT; p < 0.0001), late oestrous cycle (49.0 ± 3.5 vs 75.92 ± 7.14 ng/mgLT; p < 0.0001) or early pregnancy (38.4 ± 2.1 vs 70.7 ± 5.3 ng/mgLT; p < 0.0001). The differences in basal P4 secretion remained after stimulation with LH. Finally, P4 secretion during early pregnancy of Iberian sows decreased with age and, hence, with obesity features (46.6 ± 4.2 vs 65.5 ± 4.8 ng/mgLT; p < 0.001). In conclusion, the results of the present study provide convincing evidence of a reduced luteal function during oestrous cycle and early pregnancy of sows with obesity/leptin resistance like Iberian sows, which may contribute to the low reproductive efficiency reported in this breed.