The oviduct plays a crucial role in fertilization, gamete maturation and embryo transport. Prostaglandins are some of the main factors determining its roles. The present study investigated the influence of oestrus synchronization and superovulation on prostaglandins synthesis in the porcine oviduct. Mature cross-bred gilts after exhibiting oestrous cycles were divided into four groups: I, cyclic; II, inseminated; III, synchronized and inseminated; and IV, superovulated and inseminated. Oviducts were collected on the third day of the oestrous cycle or after insemination and divided into isthmus and ampullary parts. This study demonstrated lower mRNA (in the isthmus and ampulla; p < 0.05, p < 0.001, respectively) and protein prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2 expression (in the isthmus; p < 0.001) in gilts treated with human chorionic gonadotrophin/equine chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG/eCG) compared with Group II that were inseminated only. In addition, hCG and eCG treatment decreased mPGES-1 mRNA levels in Groups III and IV, in both the isthmus (p < 0.01 in III, p < 0.001 in IV) and ampulla (p < 0.001). The prostaglandin E2 content of oviductal tissues was significantly lower in Groups III (p < 0.05) and IV (p < 0.01 in isthmus, p < 0.0001 in ampulla) compared with Group II. mRNA and protein levels of PGFS in Group IV in the oviductal isthmus were higher (p < 0.01) compared with the non-treated Group II. In effect, the amount of prostaglandin F2α in oviductal tissues of gilts treated with hCG/eCG was significantly elevated (p < 0.001 in isthmus of Groups III and IV; p < 0.05 in ampulla of Group IV). Differential expression of the factors analysed in gilts treated with exogenous gonadotrophins suggests that hCG/eCG stimulation affects prostaglandins synthesis pathway. These changes can alter oviduct functions and in turn affect gamete maturation and fertilization as well as development of embryos and their transport to the uterus.