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Nutrient availability is a determinant of reproductive success. It is well known that inadequate nutrition results in reproductive failure due to a number of factors including delay of puberty or anoestrous in post-pubertal animals. The lack of nutrients is detected primarily by changes in circulating nutrient molecules and hormones and communicated directly or indirectly to the hypothalamus and brain stem for integration. The general effect is that low nutrition leads to increased appetite stimulation and reduced reproductive performance. When nutrition is adequate, the reverse is true. Both aspects will be the focus of this review. One result of the lack of nutrients is a reduction in luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and pulse frequency. Nutrient signals, such as glucose availability, hormonal signals, such as insulin and leptin, and neuroendocrine signals, such as neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone, have been clearly demonstrated to interact to produce changes in LH and reproductive success. Other signals, such as fatty acids, ghrelin, agouti-related peptide, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, kisspeptin, neurokinin, dynorphin and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone may also play a role in integrating nutrition and reproduction. This review will focus on the major features of the reciprocal control of appetite and reproduction in sheep.