This article studies the effect of a boar's birth season and breed on semen parameters and its further reproductive performance. Research material consisted of 72 boars from three breeds (24 Polish Large White PLW, 24 Polish Landrace PL, 24 Duroc × Pietrain D×P). During the whole period of the study, selected semen parameters were analysed: semen volume, spermatozoa concentration, total number of spermatozoa, total number of motile spermatozoa, number of insemination doses and also reproductive indicators: farrowing rate, total born litter size, total number of piglets born live and still, and average piglet weight. Boars born in the winter and summer months demonstrated the highest spermatozoa concentrations (383.25 and 392.37 × 106/ml), total number of spermatozoa (91.75 and 93.21 × 109), total number of motile spermatozoa (76.10 and 77.99 × 109) and number of insemination doses (24.53 and 24.89; p ≤0.01). Statistically lower values for these parameters were observed for boars born in the spring and especially in autumn (p ≤0.01). The significant impact of birth season on farrowing rate (p  0.05) and average piglet weight (p  0.05) was confirmed for PLW boars. For the PL breed, only the total number of piglets born live was proven to be significantly affected (p  0.05). No impact of birth season was shown on semen quality or reproductive performance for D×P boars. In our study, we showed that the birth season of a boar had a more impact on the level of semen parameters, and less on the reproductive performance indicators. The results indicated that both the quality of semen and reproductive performance varied in terms of the study factors, as well as between individual breeds of boars involved in the experiment.