Male camel infertility is a heterogeneous disorder. A variety of factors may adversely affect sperm production and function and impair fertility. This study was designed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography and testicular biopsy in the evaluation of the breeding soundness of male dromedaries compared with results obtained by clinical examination and semen analysis. Eighty-four male dromedary camels (5–15 years old) were used in this study during the rutting season (November–May). Four sexually mature male camels were used as controls. These animals were apparently healthy and had histories of normal fertility. Eighty infertile male camels were subjected to an algorithmic approach based on information collected during careful examinations of the camels' breeding histories, clinical examinations, testicular evaluations, testicular ultrasonographies, the results of the semen analyses and testicular biopsies to diagnose the camels' infertilities. The differences in the semen parameters between the control and infertile male camels were highly significant (p < 0.01). Regarding the diagnoses of male camel infertility, the results of testicular ultrasonographies and biopsies were compared with those from the semen analyses, and the accuracies of these tests were 92.5% and 90%, respectively. Additionally, the results of the testicular ultrasonographies were matched with those of the testicular biopsies of the infertile animals, and this comparison resulted in 85% accuracy. Testicular biopsy is a promising method that, along with a carefully performed history, clinical examination, an appropriate testicular ultrasonography procedure and semen analysis, can afford veterinarians the opportunity for more precise diagnosis and treatment of many dromedary infertility disorders.