rec12000-sup-0001-FigureS1.docWord document4644KFigure S1. (a) Contrast between 50-year-old restored thicket (left) and degraded thicket (right) at Rhinosterhoek study area. The dominant shrub in the restored thicket is spekboom (Portulacaria afra), towering above the 2-m enclosure fence. Remnant trees in the degraded state are Pappea capensis (in the background). Photo: ML van der Vyver. (b) Krompoort study site showing different aged restoration stands (bright green patches) and surrounding degraded thicket with remnant thicket clumps and isolated trees in a matrix of bare ground, ephemeral grasses and karroid shrubs. Photo: RM Cowling. (c) A landscape close to Rhinosterhoek study site. In the foreground is a circa 5-year-old spekboom restoration plot with established spekboom truncheons (bright green shrubs in the foreground) and remnant canopy trees (mostly Pappea capensis) enclosed within a stock-proof fence. Behind and upslope of the fence a savanna-like degraded landscape is visible devoid of spekboom which abruptly switches over, where a fence used to be, to intact spekboom thicket further upslope. Photo: ML van der Vyver.
rec12000-sup-0002-FigureS2.docWord document293KFigure S2. Location map of the experimental sites Krompoort (−33.544690; 25.174098) and Rhinosterhoek (−33.478846; 24.917472) shown in yellow. Green shading represents intact spekboom thicket while red shading represent areas where spekboom thicket landscapes are moderately to heavily degraded (Lloyd et al. 2002).
rec12000-sup-0003-FigureS3.docWord document1182KFigure S3. Google Earth image of Krompoort study area showing the Intact (cyan), Degraded (pink), Restored33 (red), Restored19 (yellow), and Restored11 (blue) sampling sites.
rec12000-sup-0004-FigureS4.docWord document2067KFigure S4. (a) A photograph of Rhinosterhoek taken circa 1960. The planted row of spekboom is already visible where it was planted behind the house (red ellipse). (b) A Google Earth image of Rhinosterhoek showing the different stands, sampled. Red shows the 50-year post-restoration, and yellow the 35-year post-restoration stands, respectively. Pink shows the degraded, and cyan the intact stands, respectively.
rec12000-sup-0005-FigureS5.docWord document29KFigure S5. Partial results from a bootstrap-analysis of pairwise beta-diversity for selected restoration categories in our study. Each histogram shows the results of 2,000 bootstrapping iterations (or estimates of beta-diversity), here of the species-neutral.
rec12000-sup-0006-TableS1.docWord document48KTable S1. Alpha-diversity, evenness and rate of turnover (multiplicative β-1) as measured by species-neutral and species-sensitive (phylogenetic-based) versions of species richness (α-diversity only) and Rao's quadratic entropy (Q), following conversion to true diversity sensu Jost 2007. Recruits were treated as pseudo-species.

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