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LITERATURE CITED

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  • Bryars, S., and V. Neverauskas. 2004. Natural recolonisation of seagrasses at a disused sewage sludge outfall. Aquatic Botany 80:283289.
  • Bryars, S., and K. Rowling. 2009. Benthic habitats of eastern Gulf St Vincent: major changes in benthic cover and composition following European settlement of Adelaide. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 133:318338.
  • Bryars, S., R. Wear, and G. Collings. 2008. Seagrasses of Gulf St Vincent and Investigator Strait. Pages 132147 in S. Shepherd, S. Bryars, I. Kirkegaard, P. Harbison, and J. T. Jennings, editors. Natural history of Gulf St Vincent. Royal Society of South Australia, Inc., Adelaide, Australia.
  • Bull, J. S., D. C. Reed, and S. J. Holbrook. 2004. An experimental evaluation of different methods of restoring Phyllospadix torreyi (surfgrass). Restoration Ecology 12:7079.
  • Clarke, S. M., and H. Kirkman 1989. Seagrass dynamics. Pages 304345 in A. W. D. Larkum, A. J. Mccomb and S. A. Shepherd, editors. Biology of seagrasses: a treatise on the biology of seagrasses with special reference to the Australian region. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Connell, S. D. 2007. Water quality and the loss of coral reefs and kelp forests: alternative states and the influence of fishing. Pages 556568 in S. D. Connell, and B. M. Gillanders, editors. Marine ecology. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia.
  • Connolly, R. M. 1994. A comparison of fish assemblages from seagrass and unvegetated areas of a southern Australian estuary. Australian Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research 45:10331044.
  • Costanza, R., R. D'arge, R. De Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, et al. 1997. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253260.
  • Durako, M. J., J. L. Shup, C. J. Andress, and D. A. Tomasko. 1993. Restoring seagrass beds: some new approaches with Ruppia maritima L. (Widgeon-grass). Pages 88101 in E. J. Webb, Jr., editor. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference on Wetlands Restoration and Creation. Hillsborough Community College, Institute of Florida Studies, Plant City, Florida.
  • Fonseca, M. S., W. J. Kenworthy, F. X. Courtney, and M. O. Hall. 1994. Seagrass planting in the United States: methods for accelerating habitat development. Restoration Ecology 2:198212.
  • Fonseca, M. S., W. J. Kenworthy, and G. W. Thayer. 1998. Guidelines for the conservation and restoration of seagrasses in the United States and adjacent waters. NOAA Coastal Ocean Program, Silver Spring, Maryland.
  • Fonseca, M. S., B. E. Julius, and W. J. Kenworthy. 2000. Integrating biology and economics in seagrass restoration: how much is enough and why? Ecological Engineering 15:227237.
  • González-Correa, J. M., J. T. Bayle, J. L. Sánchez-Lizaso, C. Valle, P. Sánchez-Jerez, and J. M. Ruiz. 2005. Recovery of deep Posidonia oceanica meadows degraded by trawling. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 320:6576.
  • Harwell, M. C., and R. J. Orth. 1999. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) seed protection for field experiments and implications for large-scale restoration. Aquatic Botany 64:5161.
  • Heck, K. L., K. W. Able, C. T. Roman, and M. P. Fahay. 1995. Composition, abundance, biomass, and production of macrofauna in a New England estuary: comparisons among eelgrass meadows and other nursery habitats. Estuaries 18:379389.
  • Irving, A. D., J. E. Tanner, S. Seddon, D. Miller, G. J. Collings, R. J. Wear, S. L. Hoare, and M. J. Theil. 2010. Testing alternate ecological approaches to seagrass rehabilitation: links to life-history traits. Journal of Applied Ecology 47:11191127.
  • Kenworthy, W. J., and M. S. Fonseca. 1977. Reciprocal transplant of the seagrass Zostera marina L. Effect of substrate on growth. Aquaculture 12:197213.
  • Kirkman, H., and J. Kuo. 1990. Pattern and process in southern Western Australian seagrasses. Aquatic Botany 37:367382.
  • Kuo, J., and C. Den Hartog. 2006. Seagrass morphology, anatomy, and ultrastructure. Pages 5187 in A. W. D. Larkum, R. J. Orth, and C. M. Duarte, editors. Seagrasses: biology, ecology and conservation. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Larkum, A. W. D., and R. J. West. 1990. Long-term changes of seagrass meadows in Botany Bay, Australia. Aquatic Botany 37:5570.
  • Marba, N., and D. I. Walker. 1999. Growth, flowering, and population dynamics of temperate Western Australian seagrasses. Marine Ecology Progress Series 184:105118.
  • Mateo, M. A., J. Cebrián, K. Dunton, and T. Mutchler. 2006. Carbon flux in seagrass ecosystems. Pages 159192 in A. W. D. Larkum, R. J. Orth and C. M. Duarte, editors. Seagrasses: biology, ecology and conservation. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Myers, J. L., and A. D. Well. 2002. Research design and statistical analysis. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  • Neverauskas, V. P. 1987. Monitoring seagrass beds around a sewage sludge outfall in South Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18:158164.
  • Orth, R. J. 1977. The importance of sediment stability in seagrass communities. Pages 281300 in B. C. Coull, editor. Ecology of marine benthos. University of South Carolina Press, Colombia, South Carolina.
  • Orth, R. J., T. J. B. Carruthers, W. C. Dennison, C. M. Duarte, J. W. Fourqurean, K. L. Heck, et al. 2006a. A global crisis for seagrass ecosystems. BioScience 56:987996.
  • Orth, R. J., M. C. Harwell, and G. J. Inglis. 2006b. Ecology of seagrass seeds and seagrass dispersal processes. Pages 111133 in A. W. D. Larkum, R. J. Orth and C. M. Duarte, editors. Seagrasses: biology, ecology and conservation. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Paling, E. I., M. Van Keulen, K. Wheeler, J. Phillips, and R. Dyhrberg. 2001. Mechanical seagrass transplantation in Western Australia. Ecological Engineering 16:331339.
  • Paling, E. I., M. Van Keulen, K. Wheeler, J. Phillips, and R. Dyhrberg. 2003. Influence of spacing on mechanically transplanted seagrass survival in a high wave energy regime. Restoration Ecology 11:5661.
  • Ralph, P. J., D. Tomasko, K. Moore, S. Seddon, and C. M. O. Macinnis-Ng. 2006. Human impacts on seagrasses: eutrophication, sedimentation, and contamination. Pages 567593 in A. W. D. Larkum, R. J. Orth and C. M. Duarte, editors. Seagrasses: biology, ecology and conservation. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Reed, D. C., S. J. Holbrook, C. A. Blanchette, and S. Worcester. 2009. Patterns and sources of variation in flowering, seed supply and seedling recruitment in surfgrass Phyllospadix torreyi. Marine Ecology Progress Series 384:97106.
  • Van Keulen, M., E. I. Paling, and C. J. Walker. 2003. Effects of planting unit size and sediment stabilization on seagrass transplants in Western Australia. Restoration Ecology 11:5055.
  • Waycott, M., D. I. Walker, and S. H. James. 1996. Genetic uniformity in Amphibolis antarctica, a dioecious seagrass. Heredity 76:578585.
  • Waycott, M., C. M. Duarte, T. J. B. Carruthers, R. J. Orth, W. C. Dennison, S. Olyarnik, et al. 2009. Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:1237712381.
  • Wear, R. J., J. E. Tanner, and S. L. Hoare. 2010. Facilitating recruitment of Amphibolis as a novel approach to seagrass rehabilitation in hydrodynamically active waters. Marine and Freshwater Research 61:11231133.