United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone: Summary for Decision Makers (UNEP, 2011), at 5, 15.
The Copenhagen Accord for Limiting Global Warming: Criteria, Constraints and Available Avenues’, 107:18 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2010), 8055 ; and , ‘see also et al., ‘Reducing Abrupt Climate Change Risk Using the Montreal Protocol and Other Regulatory Actions to Complement Cuts in CO2 Emissions’, 106:49 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2009), 20616.
This article does not focus on other SLCPs. For a detailed discussion see, e.g., Multilateral Efforts to Reduce Black Carbon Emissions: A Lifeline for the Warming Arctic?’, 20:1 Review of European Community and International Environmental Law (2011), 3. and , ‘
See, e.g., et al., The Copenhagen Diagnosis: Updating the World on the Latest Climate Science (University of New South Wales Climate Change Research Centre, 2011); Illustrated Guide to the Science of Global Warming Impacts (15 December 2011), found at: <http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2011/09/28/330109/science-of-global-warming-impacts/>. ,
See, e.g., et al., 4 above, at 29, 40; et al., ‘The Coral Reef Crisis: The Critical Importance of < 350 ppm CO2’, 58:10 Marine Pollution Bulletin (2009), 1428 ; et al., ‘Coral Reefs May Start Dissolving When Atmospheric CO2 Doubles’, 36 Geophysical Research Letters (2009), L05606 . See also et al., Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations and Impacts over Decades to Millennia (National Academies Press, 2011).
C. Field et al. (eds.), Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation: A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2012), found at: <http://www.ipcc-wg2.gov/SREX/>.
et al., ‘Tipping Elements in the Earth's Climate System’, 105:6 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2008), 1786.
Ibid., at 1788. See also China: The Third Pole’, 454:24 Nature (2008), 393 ; , ‘ Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic: Executive Summary (AMAP Secretariat, 2011), found at: <http://amap.no/swipa/SWIPA2011ExecutiveSummaryV2.pdf>.
See AMAP, 8 above, at 4.
See 8 above, at 393. , See also et al., ‘Asia’, in: M.L. Parry et al. (eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2007), 469.
et al., ‘Regional Climate Projections’, in: S. Solomon et al. (eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007), 847.
Tragic Triumph’, 100:1 Climatic Change (2010), 229. , ‘See also et al., 4 above, at 223.
According to data analyzed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center and NASA, on 16 September 2012 the Arctic reached a new record minimum of 1.32 million square miles, 18% less than the previous record minimum set in 2007 and nearly 50% less than the 1979–2000 average. National Snow and Ice Data Center, ‘Arctic Sea Ice Extent Settles a Record Seasonal Minimum’ (16 September 2012), found at: <http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/>. See also Spring Snow Cover Extent Reductions in the 2008–2012 Period Exceeding Climate Model Projections’, Geophysical Research Letters (2012, forthcoming). and , ‘
et al., ‘Radiative Forcing and Albedo Feedback from the Northern Hemisphere Cryosphere between 1979 and 2008’, 4:3 Nature Geoscience (2011), 151. See also AMAP, 8 above; et al., ‘Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Faster than Forecast’, 34 Geophysical Research Letters (2007), L09501.
2°C or not 2°C? That is the Climate Question’, 473:7345 Nature (2011), 7. , ‘
et al., ‘Permafrost Carbon-climate Feedbacks Accelerate Global Warming’, 108:36 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2011), 14769. See also et al., ‘Amount and Timing of Permafrost Carbon Release in Response to Climate Warming’, 63:2 Tellus B (2011), 165 ; et al., 5 above, at 223.
See et al., 7 above; Ice-free Arctic Sea May be Years, Not Decades, Away’, 337:6102 Science (2012), 1591. , ‘
On Avoiding Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference with the Climate System: Formidable Challenges Ahead’, 105:38 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2008), 14245 . and , ‘See also et al., ‘Technical Summary’, in: S. Solomon et al., 11 above, 19; Global Warming: Stop Worrying, Start Panicking?’, 105:38 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2008), 14239 . , ‘
See 2 above. and ,
Decision 1/CP.16, The Cancún Agreements: Outcome of the Work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add.1, 15 March 2011), at 3.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (New York, 9 May 1992; in force 21 March 1994) (‘UNFCCC’), Article 2. See also UNEP, The Emissions Gap Report: Are the Copenhagen Accord Pledges Sufficient to Limit Global Warming to 2°C or 1.5°C? A Preliminary Assessment (UNEP, 2010).
Decision 2/CP.15, Copenhagen Accord (UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2009/11/Add.1, 30 March 2010), at paragraph 2.
Decision 1/CP.16, 20 above, at 3.
et al., ‘Greenhouse-gas Emission Targets for Limiting Global Warming to 2°C’, 458:7242 Nature (2009), 1158 . See also et al., ‘The Economics of Decarbonizing the Energy System: Results and Insights from the RECIPE Model Intercomparison’, 114:1 Climatic Change (2011), 9.
Decision 2/CP.15, 22 above, at paragraph 12; Decision 1/CP.16, 20 above, at 3. See also et al., ‘Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?’, 2 Open Atmospheric Science Journal (2008), 217.
See et al., 25 above.
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division, Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: Recent Mauna Loa CO2 (June 2012), found at: <http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/>. Returning atmospheric CO2 concentrations back to 350 ppm or lower by 2100 can be achieved through fast mitigation of greenhouse gases combined with carbon removal strategies such as reforestation, biochar and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage/reutilization. See The Potential for Land-based Biological CO2 Removal to Lower Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations, 1:1 Carbon Management (2010), 145 ; , ‘ 2 above. and ,
Decision 1/CP.17, Establishment of an Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add.1, 15 March 2012), at paragraph 4. It should be noted that the EU has agreed in principle to a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol. See Climate Change: Our Common Challenge, Our Common Opportunity’. Speech delivered at the AMCEN Ministerial meeting, Arusha (Tanzania)’ (17 September 2012), found at: <http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/12/610&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en>. , ‘
See UNEP, 21 above, at 10.
Ibid., at 16.
Ibid., at 14.
Ibid., at 10.
International Energy Agency (IEA), World Energy Outlook: Executive Summary (IEA, 2011), found at: <http://www.iea.org/Textbase/npsum/weo2011sum.pdf>, at 205.
Ibid. See also Greenhouse Gases, Climate Change and the Transition from Coal to Low-carbon Electricity, 7:014019 Environmental Research Letters (2012, forthcoming). and , ‘
In 2010, CO2-eq. emissions from ODSs could have reached as high as 76 Gt, annually, compared to 35 Gt from CO2. See et al., ‘The Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting Climate’, 104:12 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2007), at Table 1.
See 2 above, at 8061. and ,
Protecting the Ozone Layer: The United Nations History (Earthscan, 2002), at 59–60. and ,
UNEP Ozone Secretariat, Key Achievements of the Montreal Protocol to Date (UNEP, 2012), found at: <http://ozone.unep.org/%20new_site/en/Information/Information_Kit/Key_achievements_of_the_Montreal_Protocol_2012.pdf>; UNEP, Handbook for the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 9th edn (UNEP, 2012), at 310–426.
Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal, 16 September 1987; in force 1 January 1989) (‘Montreal Protocol’), Article 5.
Ibid., Article 10. See also Technology Transfer for the Ozone Layer: Lessons for Climate Change (Earthscan, 2007); , and , Ozone Layer, International Protection’ in: R. Wolfrum (ed.), Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford University Press, 2012), online edition, found at: <http://www.mpepil.com>; , , and , ‘ International Environmental Law and Policy, 4th edn (Foundation Press, 2011), at 544, 578. , and ,
See, generally, Ozone Diplomacy: New Directions in Safeguarding the Planet (Harvard University Press, 1991); , 37 above; and , 40 above. , and ,
See et al., 5 above, at 75 (noting that a significant portion of CO2 remains in the atmosphere for millennia).
et al., ‘The Large Contribution of Projected HFC Emissions to Future Climate Forcing’, 106:26 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2009) at 10949; UNEP, HFCs: A Critical Link in Protecting Climate and the Ozone Layer (UNEP, 2011), at 10; UNEP and WMO, 1 above, at 5, 15.
Ozone is created by ozone precursors including methane, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds. Methane is responsible for approximately 50% of ozone production so controlling methane will have a significant effect on ozone concentrations. As reported by et al., ‘Simultaneously Mitigating Near-term Climate Change and Improving Human Health and Food Security’, 335:6065 Science (2012), 183 . See also 2 above. and ,
See et al., 44 above, at 184.
Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, ‘Short Lived Climate Forcers: Pathways to Action – Summary’ (20 March 2012). Cf. 2 above; and , et al., ‘The Large Contribution of Projected HFC Emissions to Future Climate Forcing’, 106:26 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2009), 10949.
The UNEP/WMO integrated assessment calculates that a combination of 14 mitigation measures – seven targeting emissions of methane and seven targeting emissions of black carbon – are capable of reducing global methane emissions by approximately 38% and emissions of black carbon by approximately 77%. See UNEP, Near-term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits: Actions for Controlling Short-lived Climate Forcers (UNEP, 2011), at 9–10. In all, these measures could realize ‘nearly 90% of the maximum reduction in net GWP’ from these sources. See et al., 44 above, at 183.
Action at national and regional levels can help reduce HFCs. For example, the EU's F-gas Regulation phases out motor vehicle air conditioning refrigerants with GWP greater than 150 by 2017. See Council Regulation 842/2006 of 17 May 2006 on Certain Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases,  OJ L161/1. The United States allows manufacturers of cars and light-trucks to generate CO2-eq. credits towards their compliance with CO2 emission standards and fuel economy CAFE standards by employing HFC alternative refrigerants in mobile air conditioning systems for model year 2012–2016 vehicles. See United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ‘Office of Transportation and Air Quality, EPA and NHTSA Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks’ (April 2010), found at: <http://www.epa.gov/oms/climate/regulations/420f10014.pdf>. There are many other examples including: creating national databases of equipment containing HFCs in Hungary, Slovenia and Estonia; mandatory refrigerant leakage checks for mobile equipment in Germany, Sweden and the Netherlands; and producer responsibility schemes requiring producers and suppliers of HFCs to take back recovered bulk HFCs for further recycling, reclamation and destruction in Sweden and Germany. See et al., Preparatory Study for a Review of Regulation (EC) No 842/2006 on Certain Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases: Final Report (European Commission, 2011), found at: <http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/f-gas/docs/2011_study_en.pdf>.
See UNEP, 43 above, at 10.
See 40 above. , and ,
See et al., 46 above.
et al., ‘Preserving Montreal Protocol Climate Benefits by Limiting HFCs’, 335:6071 Science (2012), 922, at 923.
Ibid.; et al., 46 above.
See et al., 46 above; UNEP and WMO, 1 above.
HFC-23 is an ODS refrigerant with several different applications. HFC-23 is formed at the reactor stage during the manufacturing of HCFC-22. While the Montreal Protocol will eventually phase out the direct use of HCFC-22, its use as a feedstock currently escapes regulation under the Protocol, potentially causing global emissions of HFC-23 to increase as well, though not as rapidly as other HFCs. Unlike other HFCs, HFC-23 has a longer atmospheric lifetime of 270 years and a high 100-year GWP of 14,800. See Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP), Task Force Decision XX/8 Report: Assessment of Alternatives to HCFCs and Update of the 2005 TEAP Supplemental Report Data (TEAP, 2009); et al., 46 above, at 10949. Allowing credits from the destruction of HFC-23 has created a perverse incentive to continue to produce HCFC-22. For more information, see Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA), HFC-23 Offsets in the Context of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EIA, 2010), found at: <http://ec.europa.eu/clima/consultations/0004/unregistered/cdm_watch_5_en.pdf>.
WMO, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project (WMO, 2011); and et al., 46 above.
See WMO, 57 above, at 2.
US EPA, Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2010 (EPA, 2012), at 4–70, ES-4.
See et al., 46 above; et al., 53 above.
Increases in greenhouse gas emissions in the United States between 2009 and 2010 are partly due to warming temperatures increasing demand for air conditioning. See US EPA, 59 above. World sales of air conditioning in 2011 were 13% higher than in 2010. See Cooling a Warming Planet: A Global Air Conditioning Surge’, Yale Environment (10 July 2012), 360, found at: <http://e360.yale.edu/feature/cooling_a_warming_planet_a_global_air_conditioning_surge/2550/>. , ‘See also Development and the Impact of Climate Change on Energy Demand: Evidence from Brazil’, 1:3 Climate Change Economics (2010), 187. and , ‘
See UNEP, OzonAction, HCFC Phase Out: Convenient Opportunity to Safeguard the Ozone Layer and Climate (UNEP, 2008), at 6.
Potential Energy Demand for Cooling in the 50 Largest Metropolitan Areas of the World’, 37:4 Energy Policy (2009), 1382, at 1383. , ‘
See et al., 53 above, at 922.
Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto, 11 December 1997; in force 16 February 2005) (‘Kyoto Protocol’), Annex A.
See 56 above.
CDM projects reducing HFC emissions accounted for 28% of all CERs in the 2008–2012 commitment period, although HFCs only account for 1% of the global radiative forcing of all well-mixed greenhouse gases. In 2006, HFC destruction projects amounted to the largest greenhouse gas emission reductions under CDM on a CO2-eq. basis. See Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Clean Development Mechanism Backgrounder: October 2008 Status Report (Pew Center, 2008), at 8.
See UNFCCC CDM Methodologies Panel, Forty-ninth Meeting Report: Note on the Revision of AM001 (June 2011), found at: <http://cdm.unfccc.int/Panels/meth/meeting/11/049/mp49_an13.pdf>; European Commission Press Release, ‘Emissions Trading: Commission Welcomes Vote to Ban Certain Industrial Gas Credits’ (21 January 2011), found at: <http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/11/56>; Government of New Zealand Press Release, ‘Industrial Gas Units Banned from New Zealand's ETS’ (22 December 2011), found at: <http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/industrial-gas-units-banned-new-zealand%E2%80%99s-ets>; Australian Government Clean Energy Regulator, Carbon Pricing Mechanism: Eligible Emissions Units, found at: <http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/Carbon-Pricing-Mechanism/Liable-entities/Managing-my-liability/Emissions-units/Pages/default.aspx>.
TEAP, The Implications of the Montreal Protocol of the Inclusion of HFCs and PFCs in the Kyoto Protocol (TEAP, 1999) at 11.
See Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention, Negotiation Text (UN Doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/8, 19 May 2009), at paragraph 55 (discussing legally binding mitigation commitments for developed countries) and paragraphs 70–73 (discussing nationally appropriate mitigation actions for developing countries). See also Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol, A Text on Other Issues Outlined in Document FCCC/KP/AWG/2008/8 (UN Doc. FCCC/KP/AWG/2009/8, 14 May 2009).
See Carbon Finance, Cost-effectiveness of CDM Projects (18 November 2008), found at: <http://www.carbonfinanceonline.com/index.cfm?section=cdmjianalysis&action=view&id=11663>.
At a 10% annual growth rate, atmospheric concentrations of HFCs can expect to double every 7.27 years, and 4.96 years if the growth rate is 15%.
See 40 above; , and , Our Planet: An Equitable Arrangement’ (2011), found at: <http://www.unep.org/pdf/op_dec_2011/EN/OP-2011-12-EN-ARTICLE7.pdf>. , ‘
See 75 above; , Montreal Protocol, 39 above, Articles 2 (discussing control measures), 2A (discussing CFCs), 2F (discussing Hydrochlorofluorocarbons) and 5 (discussing the special situation of developing countries).
See et al., 2 above.
Greenhouse Effect Due to Chlorofluorocarbons: Climatic Implications’, 190 Science (1975), 50. , ‘
Report of the Secretary-General, We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century (United Nations, 2000), found at: <http://www.un.org/millennium/sg/report/ch4.pdf>, at 56. , See also UNEP, Global Environment Outlook 5: Environment for the Future We Want (UNEP, 2012), at 464; et al., 53 above.
The direct climate benefit of the 222 Gt CO2-eq. reduction is offset by about 30% due to a several factors, including indirect radiative forcing from reductions in the stratospheric ozone and climate forcing from increased use of substitutes of ozone depleting substances. The delay expressed here is the number of years required for the radiative forcing of CO2 to increase by the same amount as the radiative forcing of ozone depleting substances would have been by 2010. See et al., 35 above; et al., 53 above.
See et al., 35 above; et al., 4 above; UNEP, The Montreal Protocol and the Green Economy: Assessing the Contributions and Co-benefits of a Multilateral Environmental Agreement (UNEP, 2012), at 53.
See UNEP, 43 above, at 18.
See, generally, 40 above; , and , 36 above. and , See also et al., 37 above; 40 above. , and ,
See et al., 2 above.
Report of the Sixty-Fifth Meeting of the Executive Committee of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol (UN Doc. UNEP/OzL.Pro/ExCom/65/60/Corr.1, 13 January 2012), Annex 1, at 1.
See et al., 2 above.
Convenient Opportunity to Address an Inconvenient Truth (September 2008), found at: <http://www.unep.fr/ozonaction/information/mmcfiles/3139-e-oanHCFCspecialissue.pdf>. , See also Speech by Rajendra Shende Chief of Energy and OzonAction at UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (Washington, DC, 2009), found at: <http://rajendrashende.com/?tag=usepa%E2%80%99s>.
Montreal Protocol, 39 above, Articles 2H and 5.
UNEP, ‘Compliance Assistance Programme: Regional Networks of National Ozone Units’ (October 2011), found at: <http://www.unep.org/ozonaction/Portals/105/documents/network/Table%20of%20Network%20countries-%2031%20Oct%202011.pdf>.
See et al., 2 above.
See, generally, 40 above; , and , Ozone Secretariat, ‘Assessment Panels’, found at: <http://ozone.unep.org/new_site/en/assessment_panels_main.php>.
UNEP, Proposed Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, Submitted by the Federated States of Micronesia (UN Doc. UNEP/OzL.Pro.WG.1/32/5, 11 May 2012) (‘Proposed Amendment by Micronesia’); UNEP, Proposed Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, Submitted by the United States, Canada and Mexico (UN Doc. UNEP/OzL.Pro.WG.1/32/6, 11 May 2012) (‘Proposed Amendment by the US, Canada and Mexico’).
Proposed Amendment by Micronesia, 94 above, at 9; Proposed Amendment by the US, Canada and Mexico, 94 above, at 10.
See, generally, UNEP, Task Force Decision XX/8 Report: Assessment of Alternatives to HCFCs and HFCs and Update of the TEAP 2005 Supplement Report Data (UNEP, 2009), found at: <http://ozone.unep.org/teap/Reports/TEAP_Reports/teap-may-2009-decisionXX-8-task-force-report.pdf>; et al., 53 above; UNEP, TEAP 2010 Progress Report, Vol. 1 (UNEP, 2010) (‘TEAP 2010 Progress Report’), found at: <http://www.unep.ch/ozone/Assessment_Panels/TEAP/Reports/TEAP_Reports/teap-2010-progress-report-volume1-May2010.pdf>; UNEP, 43 above, at 27–33.
See UNEP, TEAP 2010 Progress Report, 96 above; UNEP, 43 above, at 12, 28, 30.
UNEP, 43 above, at 28.
Ibid., at 28; et al., ‘Ozone and TFA Impacts in North America from Degradation of 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf): A Potential Greenhouse Gas Replacement’, 44:1 Environmental Science and Technology (2010), 343.
See UNEP, 43 above, at 27.
The cumulative business-as-usual emissions from the six Kyoto gases from 2000–2050 is about 975 Gt CO2-eq. (equal to 650 x 1.5, under Figure 1, Scenario 6, in Constraining Future Greenhouse Gas Emissions by a Cumulative Target’, 106:39 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2009), 16539 ), which is equivalent to approximately 3575 Gt CO , and , ‘2-eq. The cumulative Kyoto-gas emission budget for 2000–2050 is 1500 Gt CO2-eq. if the probability of exceeding 2°C is to be limited to approximately 25%. See M. Meinshausen et al., 24 above. Therefore, the total mitigation need by 2050 is approximately 2075 Gt CO2-eq. The 87–147 Gt CO2-eq. from the proposed HFC phase-down represents 4–7% of the total mitigation needed by 2050, up to 8% if all HFCs are replaced by low-GWP substitutes. See et al., 46 above.
Report of the Combined Ninth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Twenty-third Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (UN Doc. UNEP/OzL.Pro.23/11, 8 December 2011), at paragraph 156. The Bangkok Declaration can be found at UNEP, Twenty-second Meeting of the Parties, Annex III: Declaration on the Global Transition away from Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (Bangkok, 8–12, November 2010), found at: <http://ozone.unep.org/new_site/en/Treaties/treaties_decisions-hb.php?dec_id=726>.
Consumer Goods Forum, Better Lives through Better Business (29 March 2012), found at: <http://www.theconsumergoodsforum.com/pfiles/publications/brochure/The-Forum-Brochure-ENG.pdf>, at 7.
UN Conference on Sustainable Development, Conference Declaration, The Future We Want (UN Doc. A/CONF.216/L.1, 22 June 2012), at paragraph 222.
Montreal Protocol, 39 above, Articles 2A (covering the phase-out of CFCs), 2F (covering the phase-out of Hydrofluorocarbons) and 5 (describing the phase-out grace period for developing countries).
UNFCCC, 21 above, Article 2.
Ibid., Article 7.2(l).
Kyoto Protocol, 67 above, Article 2.2.