This article focuses on uneven development within emerging economies. The result of this unevenness, which often separates urban from rural populations, is that emerging economies contain two large groups: one that is enjoying rapid economic growth and begins to see a trajectory toward developed country lifestyles, and another that is lagging behind and is still more similar to developing country residents. In short, an emerging economy can be seen as containing within itself a quasi-developed country and a quasi-developing one. The article argues that these internal divisions are distinctive to emerging economies and that they provide a basis for differentiating the responsibilities of emerging economies from the developed/developing country situations. Internally, populations within emerging economies have common but differentiated responsibilities themselves, and emerging economies have a duty to use national resources funded by the more developed portion of the society to assist with adaptation in less-developed areas.