Historians have recently begun to explore premodern academic violence and this study is the first survey of violence at Italian universities between the fifteenth and the seventeenth centuries. It seeks to address a series of questions. How frequent was violence? What forms did it take? What motivated it? What were the responses of the authorities? Examining these issues increases our understanding of masculinity and academic, social, and national identities in this period. It also throws light on the nature of justice in the Italian states.