• Science and public policy;
  • value-bias;
  • value-relevance

Risk assessment ought to provide a solid, evidence base to risk management in the development of environmental policy and decisions, where the risk assessors act without advocacy as honest brokers of science advice. But there are concerns that the values of the risk assessors might undermine the objectivity of the process. For similar reasons, there is suspicion that more interaction between risk assessors and risk managers might contaminate the science. On the contrary, here the argument is that making risk assessment more management- and value-relevant, through more effective dialogue, provides a better foundation for objective science advice.