• 1
    Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. Survey on the state of employees' health. 2007. (In Japanese.)
  • 2
    Alterman T, Luckhaupt SE, Dahlhamer JM, Ward BW, Calvert GM. Prevalence rates of work organization characteristics among workers in the U.S.: data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2013; 56: 647659.
  • 3
    Eurofound. Overview Report – Fifth European Working Conditions Survey. Publications Office of the European Union: Luxembourg, 2012.
  • 4
    Kryger M, Roth T, Dement W. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 5th edn. Elsevier Saunders: Philadelphia, PA, 2010.
  • 5
    American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual, 2nd edn. American Academy of Sleep Medicine: Westchester, 2005.
  • 6
    Wright KP Jr, Bogan RK, Wyatt JK. Shift work and the assessment and management of shift work disorder (SWD). Sleep Med. Rev. 2013; 17: 4154.
  • 7
    Rosekind MR, Gregory KB. Insomnia risks and costs: health, safety, and quality of life. Am. J. Manag. Care 2010; 16: 617626.
  • 8
    Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Billy BD et al. Shiftworkers report worse sleep than day workers, even in retirement. J. Sleep Res. 2013; 22: 201208.
  • 9
    Guo Y, Liu Y, Huang X et al. The effects of shift work on sleeping quality, hypertension and diabetes in retired workers. PLoS ONE 2013; 8: e71107.
  • 10
    American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Shift Work Type (Shift Work Disorder). The International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual, 2nd edn. American Academy of Sleep Medicine: Westchester, IL, 2005; 131133.
  • 11
    Drake CL, Roehrs T, Richardson G, Walsh JK, Roth T. Shift work sleep disorder: prevalence and consequences beyond that of symptomatic day workers. Sleep 2004; 27: 14531462.
  • 12
    Rajaratnam SM, Barger LK, Lockley SW et al. Sleep disorders, health, and safety in police officers. JAMA 2011; 306: 25672578.
  • 13
    Waage S, Moen BE, Pallesen S et al. Shift work disorder among oil rig workers in the North Sea. Sleep 2009; 32: 558565.
  • 14
    Flo E, Pallesen S, Mageroy N et al. Shift work disorder in nurses – assessment, prevalence and related health problems. PLoS ONE 2012; 7: e33981.
  • 15
    Eldevik MF, Flo E, Moen BE, Pallesen S, Bjorvatn B. Insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder in nurses having less than 11 hours in-between shifts. PLoS ONE 2013; 8: e70882.
  • 16
    Di Milia L, Waage S, Pallesen S, Bjorvatn B. Shift work disorder in a random population sample – prevalence and comorbidities. PLoS ONE 2013; 8: e55306.
  • 17
    Asaoka S, Aritake S, Komada Y et al. Factors associated with shift work disorder in nurses working with rapid-rotation schedules in Japan: the Nurses' Sleep Health Project. Chronobiol. Int. 2013; 30: 628636.
  • 18
    Laaksonen M, Lallukka T, Lahelma E, Partonen T. Working conditions and psychotropic medication: a prospective cohort study. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 2012; 47: 663670.
  • 19
    Driesen K, Jansen NW, van Amelsvoort LG, Kant I. The mutual relationship between shift work and depressive complaints – a prospective cohort study. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 2011; 37: 402410.
  • 20
    Knutsson A, Åkerstedt T, Jonsson BG, Orth-Gomer K. Increased risk of ischaemic heart disease in shift workers. Lancet 1986; 2: 8992.
  • 21
    Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ et al. Prospective study of shift work and risk of coronary heart disease in women. Circulation 1995; 92: 31783182.
  • 22
    Morikawa Y, Nakagawa H, Miura K et al. Relationship between shift work and onset of hypertension in a cohort of manual workers. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 1999; 25: 100104.
  • 23
    Kubo T, Fujino Y, Nakamura T et al. An industry-based cohort study of the association between weight gain and hypertension risk among rotating shift workers. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 2013; 55: 10411045.
  • 24
    Suwazono Y, Dochi M, Sakata K et al. Shift work is a risk factor for increased blood pressure in Japanese men: a 14-year historical cohort study. Hypertension 2008; 52: 581586.
  • 25
    Hermansson J, Gillander Gadin K, Karlsson B, Lindahl B, Stegmayr B, Knutsson A. Ischemic stroke and shift work. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 2007; 33: 435439.
  • 26
    Brown DL, Feskanich D, Sanchez BN, Rexrode KM, Schernhammer ES, Lisabeth LD. Rotating night shift work and the risk of ischemic stroke. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2009; 169: 13701377.
  • 27
    Oyama I, Kubo T, Fujino Y et al. Retrospective cohort study of the risk of impaired glucose tolerance among shift workers. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 2012; 38: 337342.
  • 28
    Morikawa Y, Nakagawa H, Miura K et al. Shift work and the risk of diabetes mellitus among Japanese male factory workers. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 2005; 31: 179183.
  • 29
    Suwazono Y, Uetani M, Oishi M, Tanaka K, Morimoto H, Sakata K. Calculation of the benchmark duration of shift work associated with the development of impaired glucose metabolism: a 14-year cohort study on 7104 male workers. Occup. Environ. Med. 2010; 67: 532537.
  • 30
    Pan A, Schernhammer ES, Sun Q, Hu FB. Rotating night shift work and risk of type 2 diabetes: two prospective cohort studies in women. PLoS Med. 2011; 8: e1001141.
  • 31
    Monk TH, Buysse DJ. Exposure to shift work as a risk factor for diabetes. J. Biol. Rhythms 2013; 28: 356359.
  • 32
    Dochi M, Suwazono Y, Sakata K et al. Shift work is a risk factor for increased total cholesterol level: a 14-year prospective cohort study in 6886 male workers. Occup. Environ. Med. 2009; 66: 592597.
  • 33
    Suwazono Y, Uetani M, Oishi M et al. Estimation of the benchmark duration of alternating shift work associated with increased total cholesterol levels among male Japanese workers. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 2010; 36: 142149.
  • 34
    Uetani M, Sakata K, Oishi M et al. The influence of being overweight on the relationship between shift work and increased total cholesterol level. Ann. Epidemiol. 2011; 21: 327335.
  • 35
    Antunes LC, Levandovski R, Dantas G, Caumo W, Hidalgo MP. Obesity and shift work: chronobiological aspects. Nutr. Res. Rev. 2010; 23: 155168.
  • 36
    Roos E, Lallukka T, Rahkonen O, Lahelma E, Laaksonen M. Working conditions and major weight gain-a prospective cohort study. Arch. Environ. Occup. Health 2013; 68: 166172.
  • 37
    Suwazono Y, Dochi M, Sakata K et al. A longitudinal study on the effect of shift work on weight gain in male Japanese workers. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008; 16: 18871893.
  • 38
    Kubo T, Oyama I, Nakamura T et al. Retrospective cohort study of the risk of obesity among shift workers: findings from the Industry-based Shift Workers' Health study, Japan. Occup. Environ. Med. 2011; 68: 327331.
  • 39
    Kim HI, Jung SA, Choi JY et al. Impact of shiftwork on irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia. J. Korean Med. Sci. 2013; 28: 431437.
  • 40
    Nojkov B, Rubenstein JH, Chey WD, Hoogerwerf WA. The impact of rotating shift work on the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in nurses. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2010; 105: 842847.
  • 41
    Pietroiusti A, Forlini A, Magrini A et al. Shift work increases the frequency of duodenal ulcer in H. pylori infected workers. Occup. Environ. Med. 2006; 63: 773775.
  • 42
    van Mark A, Spallek M, Groneberg DA, Kessel R, Weiler SW. Correlates shift work with increased risk of gastrointestinal complaints or frequency of gastritis or peptic ulcer in H. pylori-infected shift workers? Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 2010; 83: 423431.
  • 43
    Straif K, Baan R, Grosse Y et al. WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group. Carcinogenicity of shift-work, painting, and fire-fighting. Lancet Oncol. 2007; 8: 10651066.
  • 44
    World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. 98. Painting, Firefighting and Shiftwork: Lyon, 2010.
  • 45
    Schernhammer ES, Laden F, Speizer FE et al. Night-shift work and risk of colorectal cancer in the nurses' health study. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 825828.
  • 46
    Schernhammer ES, Feskanich D, Liang G, Han J. Rotating night-shift work and lung cancer risk among female nurses in the United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2013; 178: 14341441.
  • 47
    Viswanathan AN, Hankinson SE, Schernhammer ES. Night shift work and the risk of endometrial cancer. Cancer Res. 2007; 67: 1061810622.
  • 48
    Schernhammer ES, Laden F, Speizer FE et al. Rotating night shifts and risk of breast cancer in women participating in the nurses' health study. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 2001; 93: 15631568.
  • 49
    Kubo T, Ozasa K, Mikami K et al. Prospective cohort study of the risk of prostate cancer among rotating-shift workers: findings from the Japan collaborative cohort study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2006; 164: 549555.
  • 50
    Wagstaff AS, Sigstad Lie JA. Shift and night work and long working hours – a systematic review of safety implications. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 2011; 37: 173185.
  • 51
    Mitler MM, Carskadon MA, Czeisler CA, Dement WC, Dinges DF, Graeber RC. Catastrophes, sleep, and public policy: consensus report. Sleep 1988; 11: 100109.
  • 52
    Åkerstedt T. Consensus statement: fatigue and accidents in transport operations. J. Sleep Res. 2000; 9: 395.
  • 53
    Folkard S, Lombardi DA, Tucker PT. Shiftwork: safety, sleepiness and sleep. Ind. Health 2005; 43: 2023.
  • 54
    Cohen DA, Wang W, Wyatt JK et al. Uncovering residual effects of chronic sleep loss on human performance. Sci. Transl. Med. 2010; 2: 14ra3.
  • 55
    Zhou X, Ferguson SA, Matthews RW et al. Sleep, wake and phase dependent changes in neurobehavioral function under forced desynchrony. Sleep 2011; 34: 931941.
  • 56
    Lockley SW, Cronin JW, Evans EE et al. Effect of reducing interns' weekly work hours on sleep and attentional failures. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004; 351: 18291837.
  • 57
    Landrigan CP, Rothschild JM, Cronin JW et al. Effect of reducing interns' work hours on serious medical errors in intensive care units. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004; 351: 18381848.
  • 58
    Trinkoff AM, Le R, Geiger-Brown J, Lipscomb J. Work schedule, needle use, and needlestick injuries among registered nurses. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2007; 28: 156164.
  • 59
    Violanti JM, Fekedulegn D, Andrew ME et al. Shift work and the incidence of injury among police officers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2012; 55: 217227.
  • 60
    Violanti JM, Fekedulegn D, Andrew ME et al. Shift work and long-term injury among police officers. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 2013; 39: 361368.
  • 61
    Mustard CA, Chambers A, McLeod C, Bielecky A, Smith PM. Work injury risk by time of day in two population-based data sources. Occup. Environ. Med. 2013; 70: 4956.
  • 62
    Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. Annual report of the committee on analysis of traffic accident factors in motor transport business. 2013. (In Japanese.)
  • 63
    Camerino D, Sandri M, Sartori S, Conway PM, Campanini P, Costa G. Shiftwork, work-family conflict among Italian nurses, and prevention efficacy. Chronobiol. Int. 2010; 27: 11051123.
  • 64
    Han WJ, Fox LE. Parental work schedules and children's cognitive trajectories. J. Marriage Fam. 2011; 73: 962980.
  • 65
    Mills M, Täht K. Nonstandard work schedules and partnership quality: quantitative and qualitative findings. J. Marriage Fam. 2010; 72: 860875.
  • 66
    Lowson E, Middleton B, Arber S, Skene DJ. Effects of night work on sleep, cortisol and mood of female nurses, their husbands and children. Sleep Biol. Rhythms 2013; 11: 713.
  • 67
    Pisarski A, Barbour JP. What roles do team climate, roster control, and work life conflict play in shiftworkers' fatigue longitudinally? Appl. Ergon. 2014; 45: 773779.
  • 68
    Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Shift work and sleep: optimizing health, safety, and performance. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 2011; 53: S110, quiz S1-2.
  • 69
    Takahashi M. Prioritizing sleep for healthy work schedules. J. Physiol. Anthropol. 2012; 31: 6.
  • 70
    Dawson D, McCulloch K. Managing fatigue: it's about sleep. Sleep Med. Rev. 2005; 9: 365380.
  • 71
    Dorrian J, Sweeney M, Dawson D. Modeling fatigue-related truck accidents: prior sleep duration, recency and continuity. Sleep Biol. Rhythms 2011; 9: 311.
  • 72
    Takahashi M. The role of prescribed napping in sleep medicine. Sleep Med. Rev. 2003; 7: 227235.
  • 73
    Peplonska B, Bukowska A, Gromadzinska J et al. Night shift work characteristics and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (MT6s) in rotating night shift nurses and midwives. Occup. Environ. Med. 2012; 69: 339346.
  • 74
    Bracci M, Copertaro A, Manzella N et al. Influence of night-shift and napping at work on urinary melatonin, 17-beta-estradiol and clock gene expression in pre-menopausal nurses. J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 2013; 27: 267274.
  • 75
    Kales SN, Straubel MG. Obstructive sleep apnea in north american commercial drivers. Ind. Health 2014; 52: 1324.
  • 76
    Czeisler CA, Johnson MP, Duffy JF, Brown EN, Ronda JM, Kronauer RE. Exposure to bright light and darkness to treat physiologic maladaptation to night work. N. Engl. J. Med. 1990; 322: 12531259.
  • 77
    Bjorvatn B, Pallesen S. A practical approach to circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Sleep Med. Rev. 2009; 13: 4760.
  • 78
    Smith MR, Eastman CI. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment. Nat. Sci. Sleep 2012; 4: 111132.
  • 79
    Czeisler CA, Walsh JK, Roth T et al. Modafinil for excessive sleepiness associated with shift-work sleep disorder. N. Engl. J. Med. 2005; 353: 476486.
  • 80
    Czeisler CA, Walsh JK, Wesnes KA, Arora S, Roth T. Armodafinil for treatment of excessive sleepiness associated with shift work disorder: a randomized controlled study. Mayo Clin. Proc. 2009; 84: 958972.
  • 81
    Järnefelt H, Lagerstedt R, Kajaste S, Sallinen M, Savolainen A, Hublin C. Cognitive behavioral therapy for shift workers with chronic insomnia. Sleep Med. 2012; 13: 12381246.
  • 82
    Lee KA, Gay CL, Alsten CR. Home-based behavioral sleep training for shift workers: a pilot study. Behav. Sleep Med. in press.
  • 83
    Lerman SE, Eskin E, Flower DJ et al. Fatigue risk management in the workplace. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 2012; 54: 231258.
  • 84
    Dawson D, Chapman J, Thomas MJ. Fatigue-proofing: a new approach to reducing fatigue-related risk using the principles of error management. Sleep Med. Rev. 2012; 16: 167175.
  • 85
    Stevens RG, Hansen J, Costa G et al. Considerations of circadian impact for defining “shift work” in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report. Occup. Environ. Med. 2011; 68: 154162.
  • 86
    Sigurdardottir LG, Valdimarsdottir UA, Fall K et al. Circadian disruption, sleep loss, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review of epidemiologic studies. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2012; 21: 10021011.
  • 87
    Erren TC. Research into “night shift work” and cancer: on the evolution of “exposure” classification. Occup. Environ. Med. 2014; 71: 78.
  • 88
    Takahashi M, Tanigawa T, Tachibana N et al. Modifying effects of perceived adaptation to shift work on health, wellbeing, and alertness on the job among nuclear power plant operators. Ind. Health 2005; 43: 171178.
  • 89
    Gamble KL, Motsinger-Reif AA, Hida A et al. Shift work in nurses: contribution of phenotypes and genotypes to adaptation. PLoS ONE 2011; 6: e18395.
  • 90
    Reszka E, Peplonska B, Wieczorek E et al. Rotating night shift work and polymorphism of genes important for the regulation of circadian rhythm. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 2013; 39: 178186.
  • 91
    Hida A, Kitamura S, Ohsawa Y et al. In vitro circadian period is associated with circadian/sleep preference. Sci. Rep. 2013; 3: 2074.
  • 92
    Czeisler CA, Moore-Ede MC, Coleman RH. Rotating shift work schedules that disrupt sleep are improved by applying circadian principles. Science 1982; 217: 460463.
  • 93
    Härmä M, Tarja H, Irja K et al. A controlled intervention study on the effects of a very rapidly forward rotating shift system on sleep-wakefulness and well-being among young and elderly shift workers. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 2006; 59: 7079.
  • 94
    Klein Hesselink J, de Leede J, Goudswaard A. Effects of the new fast forward rotating five-shift roster at a Dutch steel company. Ergonomics 2010; 53: 727738.
  • 95
    Postnova S, Postnov DD, Seneviratne M, Robinson PA. Effects of rotation interval on sleepiness and circadian dynamics on forward rotating 3-shift systems. J. Biol. Rhythms 2014; 29: 6070.
  • 96
    Viitasalo K, Kuosma E, Laitinen J, Härmä M. Effects of shift rotation and the flexibility of a shift system on daytime alertness and cardiovascular risk factors. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 2008; 34: 198205.
  • 97
    Ingre M, Åkerstedt T, Ekstedt M, Kecklund G. Periodic self-rostering in shift work: correspondence between objective work hours, work hour preferences (personal fit), and work schedule satisfaction. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 2012; 38: 327336.
  • 98
    Albertsen K, Garde AH, Nabe-Nielsen K, Hansen AM, Lund H, Hvid H. Work-life balance among shift workers: results from an intervention study about self-rostering. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 2014; 87: 265274.
  • 99
    Puttonen S, Härmä M, Hublin C. Shift work and cardiovascular disease – pathways from circadian stress to morbidity. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 2010; 36: 96108.
  • 100
    Faraut B, Bayon V, Léger D. Neuroendocrine, immune and oxidative stress in shift workers. Sleep Med. Rev. 2013; 17: 433444.
  • 101
    Blask DE, Hill SM, Dauchy RT et al. Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night. J. Pineal Res. 2011; 51: 259269.
  • 102
    Stevens RG, Brainard GC, Blask DE, Lockley SW, Motta ME. Breast cancer and circadian disruption from electric lighting in the modern world. CA Cancer J. Clin. DOI: 10.3322/caac.21218
  • 103
    Caruso CC. Negative impacts of shiftwork and long work hours. Rehabil. Nurs. 2014; 39: 1625.