Persistent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) [as indicated by chronic HBV surface antigenemia (HBsAg)] continues to be an important problem in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and specifically in those receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Patients on HD who are HBsAg-positive for a year have little chance of ever eliminating the virus; hence, clearance of HBsAg is a rare event in long-term HD patients. We report the case of a 62-year-old diabetic woman who was HBsAg-positive at the time she started HD and remained so until 10 years later when she became HBsAg-negative followed by the development of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs). Prior to her seroconversion, she suffered a persistent infection of her HD arteriovenous graft (AVG) that required prolonged antibiotics and several surgical procedures. We speculate that this immune stimulation contributed to her seroconversion.