A Case Series of Real-Time Hemodynamic Assessment of High Output Heart Failure as a Complication of Arteriovenous Access in Dialysis Patients



Congestive heart failure (CHF) is an important source of morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease patients. Although CHF is commonly associated with low cardiac output (CO), it may also occur in high CO states. Multiple conditions are associated with increased CO including congenital or acquired arteriovenous fistulae or arteriovenous grafts. Increased CO resulting from permanent AV access in dialysis patients has been shown to induce structural and functional cardiac changes, including the development of eccentric left ventricle hypertrophy. Often, the diagnosis of high output heart failure requires invasive right heart monitoring in the acute care setting such as a medical or cardiac intensive care unit. The diagnosis of an arteriovenous access causing high output heart failure is usually confirmed after the access is ligated surgically. We present for the first time, a case for real-time hemodynamic assessment of high output heart failure due to AV access by interventional nephrology in the cardiac catheterization suite.