• Calcite dendrites;
  • growth cycles;
  • hot spring;
  • isotopes;
  • Tengchong


Hot springs at Gongxiaoshe and Zhuyuan (maximum temperatures of 73 to 84°C, respectively) are characterized by deposits formed of calcite, aragonite, non-crystalline Si–Mg–Fe deposits, and minor amounts of barite and gypsum. The deposits at Gongxiaoshe are formed largely of alternating calcite and aragonite laminae, whereas those at Zhuyuan are formed largely of calcite. The calcite is in the form of: (i) pseudodendrites that grew as sub-crystals stacked upon each other; and (ii) unattached euhedral and incompletely formed dodecahedral and rhombohedral crystals. Amorphous CaCO3, formed of nanoparticles <1 μm long, is common in some of the Zhuyuan deposits, but minor in the Gongxiaoshe deposits. The morphologically diverse arrays of aragonite crystals that lie parallel to bedding were not nucleated on a growth surface. Many substrates in these deposits are covered with reticulate coatings that are formed largely of Si and Mg with minor Fe and micro-granular coatings that are formed largely of Si and Fe. Biofilms, with their extracellular polymeric substances, and microbes are common at both springs. The compositionally and crystallographically diverse precipitates at these two springs are attributed to a biologically influenced model with precipitation taking place in micro-domains that developed in the extracellular polymeric substances. According to this model, precipitation varied at the micron-scale influenced by the elemental concentrations that developed in the hydrogel of extracellular polymeric substances. Critically, the very low preservation potential of the extracellular polymeric substance and its formative microbes means that the precipitates will rapidly lose evidence of their biotic origin. The compositional diversity of the precipitates, the crystallographic diversity of the calcite and aragonite with numerous incompletely formed crystals, and local concentrations of Si, Mg and Fe may, however, serve as proxies of that biologically influenced precipitation.