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Keywords:

  • Deep-water;
  • foreland basin fill;
  • hierarchy;
  • submarine fans;
  • Svalbard;
  • turbidites

Abstract

The down-dip portion of submarine fans comprises terminal lobes that consist of various gravity flow deposits, including turbidites and debrites. Within lobe complexes, lobe deposition commonly takes place in topographic lows created between previous lobes, resulting in an architecture characterized by compensational stacking. However, in some deep water turbidite systems, compensational stacking is less prominent and progradation dominates over aggradation and lateral stacking. Combined outcrop and subsurface data from the Eocene Central Basin of Spitsbergen provide a rare example of submarine fans that comprise progradationally stacked lobes and lobe complexes. Evidence for progradation includes basinward offset stacking of successive lobe complexes, a vertical change from distal to proximal lobe environments as recorded by an upward increase in bed amalgamation, and coarsening and thickening upward trends within the lobes. Slope clinoforms occur immediately above the lobe complexes, suggesting that a shelf-slope system prograded across the basin in concert with deposition of the lobe complexes. Erosive channels are present in proximal axial lobe settings, whereas shallow channels, scours and terminal lobes dominate further basinward. Terminal lobes are classified as amalgamated, non-amalgamated or thin-bedded, consistent with turbidite deposition in lobe axis, off-axis and fringe settings, respectively. Co-genetic turbidite–debrite beds, interpreted as being deposited from hybrid sediment gravity flows which consisted of both turbulent and laminar flow phases, occur frequently in lobe off-axis to fringe settings, and are rare and poorly developed in channels and axial lobe environments. This indicates bypass of the laminar flow phase in proximal settings, and deposition in relative distal unconfined settings. Palaeocurrent data indicate sediment dispersal mainly towards the east, and is consistent with slope and lobe complex progradation perpendicular to the NNW–SSE trending basin margin.