Epidemiological research on the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL4Rα gene and eczema is sparse. We investigated the associations between IL4Rα SNPs rs1805011, rs1805015 and rs1801275 and risk of eczema in young adult Japanese women. Included were 188 women who met the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) for eczema. Controls were 635 women without eczema according to the ISAAC criteria who also had not been diagnosed with asthma, atopic eczema and/or allergic rhinitis by a doctor. Adjustment was made for age, region of residence, number of children, smoking and education. Under the additive model, SNP rs1805011 was significantly related to eczema: the adjusted OR was 0.55 (95% CI: 0.31−0.99). SNP rs1805015 was significantly associated with eczema in the additive and dominant models: the adjusted ORs were 0.55 (95% CI: 0.30−0.98) and 0.55 (95% CI: 0.30−0.997), respectively. There was no significant association between SNP rs1801275 and eczema. None of the haplotypes were significantly related to eczema. Significant associations between SNPs rs1805011 and rs1805015 and eczema were reported in women who had never smoked, but not in those who had ever smoked; the multiplicative interactions, however, were not significant. This is the first study to demonstrate significant associations between IL4Rα SNPs rs1805011 and rs1805015 and eczema. We do not find evidence for interactions affecting eczema between IL4Rα SNPs and smoking.