Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are intracellular proteins with pro- and anti-inflammatory actions, playing an important role in the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease (BD). Diagnosis of BD uveitis in early stages is still problematic, thus this study was undertaken to determine diagnostic values of serum HSP- and anti-HSP-70 in BD uveitis. Serum levels of HSP- and anti-HSP-70 were measured in 53 patients with BD (26 with and 27 without uveitis). In control group, 25 age- and sex-matched idiopathic uveitis patients were enrolled consecutively. Both groups had no medical problems save uveitis at the time of sampling. Confounders like medications were analysed subsequently. HSP- and anti-HSP-70 values were measured by commercial ELISA kits. Data were analysed by spss 11.5 and medcalc 11.5.1 software. The Mean HSP-70 serum levels were different among aforementioned subgroups (P = 0.001, anova). They were elevated in BD uveitis compared with BD without uveitis (4.84 ± 4.21 versus 2.24 ± 2.08 ng/ml; P = 0.045). HSP-70 in sera of BD uveitis was also higher than that parameter in patients with idiopathic uveitis (4.84 ± 4.21 versus 2.37 ± 3.30 ng/ml; P = 0.001; cut-off point value 1.0 9 ng/ml, 95% CI 0.61–0.86, P = 0.0002, ß = 0.06). However, there was not any statistical difference among those groups in the serum anti-HSP-70 levels (P = 0.63, anova). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that among different confounders, only prednisolone increases and BD uveitis decreases HSP-70 levels independently. This prospective cross-sectional study suggested that HSP-70 serum level is impressed over the course of BD uveitis, and it could be utilized to diagnose or predict developing it.