Influence of Toll-Like Receptor Gene Polymorphisms to Tuberculosis Susceptibility in Humans



Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), and it remains one of the major bacterial infections worldwide. Innate immunity is an important arm of antimycobacterial host defence mechanism that senses various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) of microbes by a variety of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). As per the recent discovery, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in the recognition of M. tb, this immune activation occurs only in the presence of functional TLRs. Variants of TLRs may influence their expression, function and alters the recognition or signalling mechanism, which leads to the disease susceptibility. Hence, the identification of mutations in these receptors could be used as a marker to screen the individuals who are at risk. In this review, we discuss TLR SNPs and their signalling mechanism to understand the susceptibility to TB for better therapeutic approaches.