Enhancement of Intestinal Immune Function in Mice by β-D-Glucan from Aureobasidium Pullulans ADK-34


Correspondence to: A. Tanioka, Life Science Materials Laboratory, R&D Division, ADEKA Corporation, 7-2-34, Higashiogu, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo 116-8553, Japan. E-mail: a.tanioka@adeka.co.jp


β-Glucans, glucose polymers that are the main constituents of the outer cell walls of micro-organisms such as fungi and yeast, are known to play an immunostimulatory role. We prepared β-glucan (β-(1-3),(1-6)-D-glucan) from an edible cultured fungus through fermentation techniques using a strain of Aureobasidium pullulans ADK-34. The purity of this β-glucan preparation (AP-FBG) was demonstrated to be high through various instrumental analyses. We then examined the effects of AP-FBG on intestinal immune systems. We prepared Peyer's patch (PP) cells and measured interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, and IgA production in culture media with AP-FBG. We found that both cytokines and IgA increased; furthermore, IL-6 secreted by PP dendritic cells (PPDCs) cultured in the presence of AP-FBG significantly increased. We tested IgA production after oral administration of AP-FBG for 2 weeks and found that AP-FBG tended to promote the production of IgA in the small intestine. Interestingly, we observed a significant increase in IgA production in the small intestines of mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CY; an immunosuppressant) after oral administration of AP-FBG diet compared with CY-treated and control diet mice. Production of IL-6 and IgA by PP cells and IL-6 production by PPDCs in AP-FBG-fed and CY-treated mice also increased. These results demonstrate that AP-FBG has the ability to activate PPDC and induce IL-6 production and IgA secretion in PP cells. These abilities were more clearly expressed when AP-FBG was orally administered in a CY-induced immunosuppressed condition. Therefore, AP-FBG may be a useful ingredient for preparing functional foods with immunomodulatory activities.