Interferon Lambda-2 Levels in Sputum of Patients with Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

Authors

  • M. Travar,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Banja Luka University, Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina
    2. Department of Microbiology, Clinic Centre Banja Luka, Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina
    • Correspondence to: M. Travar, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Banja Luka University, Save Mrkalja 14, 78000 Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. E-mails: maja.travar@kc-bl.com; maja@blic.net

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  • M. Vucic,

    1. Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases, Clinic Centre Banja Luka, Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina
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  • M. Petkovic

    1. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Banja Luka University, Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina
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Abstract

In humans, there are three members of type III interferon family, designated as IFN-λ1 (IL-29), IFN-λ2 (IL-28A) and IFN-λ3 (IL-28B). Bacterial infections, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, trigger the expression of interferon I and II genes, but little is known about their effect on IFN-λ genes. It has been found that M. tuberculosis infection in A549 lung epithelial cells stimulate upregulation of IFN-λ2 genes in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine the IFN-λ2 levels in sputum of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis comparing with levels in healthy persons sputum and sputum of persons with latent tuberculosis. IFN-λ2 level in the samples was quantified with sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay kit for quantization of human IFN-λ2 (IL-28A). The IFN-λ2 level in sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was significantly higher comparing with IFN-λ2 levels in healthy group (P = 0.001) and latent tuberculosis group (P = 0.005). Logistic regression analysis has shown that IFN-λ2 level in sputum is related to culture result (OR = 4.14; 95% CI = 1.28–17.5; P = 0.019). There was the correlation between Bartlett score and IFN-λ2 levels in group with pulmonary tuberculosis (r = 0.641; P < 0.01). In conclusion, we have found that the inflammatory cells in sputum can be source of IFN-λ after receptor stimulation by M. tuberculosis components.

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