The schema provokes a disparity of false recollection between actions and objects in an everyday scene


Ryoma Yamada, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, 3-25-40 Sakurajosui, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550, Japan. E-mail:


We explored the effect of the schema on recognition memories and subjective experiences for actions and objects in an everyday scene. At first, participants watched slides of a man cooking in a kitchen. The man performed schema-consistent actions, and schema-consistent objects were left. After watching the slides, participants completed a recognition test, a remember/know test, and a Perception/Thought/Emotion/Context questionnaire. We confirmed three main results. First, participants made more false recognitions for schema-consistent distracters than for schema-inconsistent distracters with more “remember” judgments accompanied by perceptual, thought, and contextual details, and with more “know” judgments. Second, participants made more false recognitions for schema-consistent object distracters than for schema-consistent action distracters. Third, participants more frequently recognized schema-consistent action targets than schema-consistent object targets with more “remember” judgments. Both action memory and object memory were reconstructed under the schema, provoking false recognitions for schema-consistent distracters. However, the memories of schema-consistent action targets were so recollective that they could prevent false recognitions for schema-consistent action distracters.