Individual and environmental correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and co-occurring suicide attempts (SA) among incarcerated women (N = 104) were examined. Participants completed measures of putative risk and protective factors, including coping styles, childhood maltreatment, and hopelessness. Results indicated that active coping was uniquely, negatively associated with the presence and frequency of NSSI, whereas avoidant coping and childhood physical/emotional abuse were positively associated with NSSI frequency. Conversely, among women with a history of NSSI, hopelessness was uniquely, positively associated with the presence and frequency of SA. Further, childhood sexual abuse was associated with the presence of SA, while physical/emotional abuse was associated with SA frequency. Hopelessness was more strongly related to SA frequency than NSSI frequency. These findings help disentangle the unique risk and protective factors for NSSI and co-occurring SA in incarcerated samples.