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Development of the Parents' Perception of their Involvement in their Child's Tennis Activity Questionnaire (Q-PPICTA)


Corresponding author: Virginie Hurtel, Laboratoire SPMS, Université de Bourgogne – UFR STAPS, Campus Universitaire, BP 27 877, 21 078 Dijon Cedex, France. Tel: +33 (0) 3 80 39 67 87, Fax: +33 (0) 3 80 39 67 02, E-mail:


The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire for assessing parents' perception of their involvement in their children's tennis activity (Q-PPICTA). The validation required four successive studies. In study 1, a preliminary version of the questionnaire was formulated after selecting and adapting items taken from existing questionnaires and interviews conducted with the parents of 36 young tennis players. Three factors for measuring parental involvement in sport were identified and retained: emotional, logistic, and informational supports. In study 2, exploratory factor analyses were performed on data collected from 214 parents of tennis players. Results attested the questionnaire's three-factor structure and ascertained its internal consistency. In study 3, a confirmatory factor analysis as well as tests on convergent and discriminant validity were carried out on data gathered from a different sample of 220 parents of tennis players. Statistics confirmed the questionnaire's three-factor structure and reliability. In study 4, the questionnaire's external construct validity was compared with another sample consisting of 192 parents and their children. Overall, results underlined satisfactory psychometric properties for the Q-PPICTA. Nevertheless, further studies are required to confirm the questionnaire's accuracy, reliability, and temporal validity.