The main aim of this study was to translate the Oslo Sport Trauma Research Center (OSTRC) Overuse Injury Questionnaire into Swedish. The validity and applicability of the questionnaire for studying overuse injuries among Swedish handball, volleyball, tennis, and orienteering top athletes were also examined. The back-translation method was used for translation. An expert committee further developed it for use in a study of injuries in handball, orienteering, tennis, and volleyball. A 10-week pretest was then conducted on 43 athletes, average age 21 (18–31) from these sports, during which time the athletes completed the modified OSTRC questionnaire on a weekly basis. In the 10th week, four additional questions were added in order to examine the questionnaire's content validity. No major disagreement was found in the translation. The athletes perceived the web-based questionnaire to be smooth and easy to complete, accurately capturing overuse injuries. However, suggestions were made to add questions relating to the hip for orienteerers and to the hand/fingers for handball players. The average prevalence of overuse injuries for all athletes, in any anatomical area was 22% (95% confidence interval 20–25). Construct validity appeared to be high, and we therefore suggest that the questionnaire may be used when studying overuse injuries in different sports.