In this article, we outline the evidence demonstrating the pervasiveness of sex and race/ethnic workplace discrimination, paying particular attention to the areas of hiring, compensation, and evaluations and promotions. Key sociological explanations for why and how these forms of employment discrimination occur are also examined. Although discrimination is often considered as discrete acts that occur within employment arrangements, the existing research suggests the presence of an underlying set of processes and choices that accumulate over time. These processes have clear implications for how discrimination is understood and the ways in which such events compound over career trajectories. Based on our examination of this literature, we suggest areas for improved theorizing, measurement, and analysis.