Functionally speaking, students are labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) and placed into special education to enable them to achieve up to their potential. Nonetheless, potential links between LDs and inequality have been a dominant research theme. Inequality may determine who experiences LDs, or who receives the LD label, just as inequality may result from LDs, or from the LD label. This article reviews broad theoretical perspectives of LDs, as well as research focused specifically on LDs and inequality. With significant data and methodological limitations hindering this body of research, this article also demonstrates how theoretical perspectives and methodologies from sociology of education and sociology of health could make significant contributions to the literatures and policy focused on this group of students.