Phylogeny of the lacebugs (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingidae) using morphological and molecular data

Authors

  • ERIC GUILBERT,

    Corresponding author
    1. UMR 7205, Department Systematic and Evolution, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France
    • Correspondence: Eric Guilbert, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle – département systématique et évolution – UMR7205 – CP50, 57 rue cuvier, 75005 Paris, France. E-mail: guilbert@mnhn.fr

    Search for more papers by this author
  • JAKOB DAMGAARD,

    1. Laboratory of Molecular Systematics, Botanical Garden and Museum, Copenhagen K, Denmark
    Search for more papers by this author
  • CYRILLE A. D'HAESE

    1. UMR 7205, Department Systematic and Evolution, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

A phylogeny of the Tingidae is provided on the basis of parsimony analysis with pre-alignment as well as with direct optimization of 2018 bp from five loci (COI, Leu-tRNA, COII, 16S and 28S) and a set of 30 morphological characters. The results obtained with either direct optimization or pre-alignment methods of parsimony clearly show that Cantacaderinae are sister group to (Phatnominae + Tinginae). Several apomorphies, retrieved in different studies, characterize Cantacaderinae, Phatnominae and Tinginae, but only one characterizes the grouping of Phatnominae + Tinginae. In addition, no clear tribal division as currently used was highlighted within the Tinginae. The results are discussed in the light of earlier morphologically based hypotheses.

Ancillary