Get access

Fly on the wall – attachment structures in lower Diptera

Authors

  • KATRIN FRIEDEMANN,

    Corresponding author
    1. Entomology Group, Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, FSU Jena, Jena, Germany
    2. Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Germany
    • Correspondence: Katrin Friedemann, Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, Erbertstr. 1, 07743 Jena, Germany. E-mail: katrinfriedemann@gmx.de

    Search for more papers by this author
  • KATHARINA SCHNEEBERG,

    1. Entomology Group, Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, FSU Jena, Jena, Germany
    Search for more papers by this author
  • ROLF G. BEUTEL

    1. Entomology Group, Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, FSU Jena, Jena, Germany
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

Pretarsal attachment structures of representatives of the megadiverse Diptera are examined and documented, mainly using scanning electron microscopy. The focus is on the basal ‘nematoceran’ lineages. The diversity in structures is much higher than suggested by brief summarizing accounts in earlier studies. Both hairy and smooth attachment structures occur. A well-developed, pad-like empodium with its ventral surface covered with adhesive hairs is arguably a groundplan feature of Diptera. Very often this pad is combined with the presence of hairy pulvilli. However, smooth pulvilli occur in two of the examined groups. A smooth arolium is present in Tipulomorpha and likely an autapomorphy of this clade, suggesting that it was acquired secondarily. Evolutionary transformations are interpreted based on recently published dipteran phylogenies.

Ancillary