Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a key cytokine responsible for immune response and involved in the process of cancer development. In this case–control study, we tested whether IL-18 promoter polymorphism contributes to breast cancer susceptibility in Brazilian patients. The two groups studied were 154 patients with breast cancer and 118 healthy individuals. The frequency of IL-18 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at positions −607 (C/A) (rs1946518) and −137 (G/C) (rs187238) was determined by polymerase chain reaction analyses. The polymorphisms genotyped in this study showed a significant association with breast cancer under different genetic models. Both SNPs showed a positive association. For the IL18-607 polymorphism the best model was the codominant genetic model [CC vs AA, P = 0.004, odds ratio (OR) = 2.782, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.385–5.589]. For IL18-137 statistical significance was found using the recessive genetic model (P = 0.008, OR = 3.896, 95% CI 1.427–10.639). The association between the haplotypes of the IL18 gene and breast cancer was further confirmed. Our results suggest that IL18-607 and IL18-137 polymorphism contributes to increase the breast cancer risk. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding Brazilian breast cancer patients and IL18 promoter polymorphisms.