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Keywords:

  • foot and mouth disease;
  • rapid Appraisal;
  • Pakistan;
  • risk factors;
  • transmission

Summary

Pakistan is at an initial stage for progressive control of foot and mouth disease (FMD). Understanding the risk factors for introduction, spread and persistence of the infection is important to design an evidence-based disease control programme. A rapid appraisal method was adopted, and a convenient sample of twenty commercial dairy farmers was interviewed. The following were considered to contribute in secondary transmission of infection: (i) intermediaries and service providers [animal health workers, animal traders and transporters, raw milk collectors, persons who remove skin of dead animals], (ii) places where animals come in close contact [livestock markets, animal fairs, communal grazing pastures, routes in villages where livestock move, watering points, animal transport vehicles], (iii) use of bulls immediately after recovery from FMD infection, (iv) range land/desert livestock production, (v) small holder sheep and goat production, (vi) purchase of replacement stock and fodder from infected locations. This article reveals contacts within and between villages, some of which may act as routes of transmission of FMD. The study suggests the need for zoosanitary education of the livestock keepers.