Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Vaccines: Current Status and Strategies to a Universal Vaccine

Authors

  • J. Hu,

    1. Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
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  • C. Zhang

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
    • Correspondence:

      C. Zhang. Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, 210 Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Tel.: +1 540 231 7601; Fax: +1 540 231 3199; E-mail: chzhang2@vt.edu

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Summary

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of PRRS, the most significant infectious disease currently affecting swine industry worldwide. In the United States alone, the economic losses caused by PRRS amount to more than 560 million US dollars every year. Due to immune evasion strategies and the antigenic heterogeneity of the virus, current commercial PRRSV vaccines (killed-virus and modified-live vaccines) are of unsatisfactory efficacy, especially against heterologous infection. Continuous efforts have been devoted to develop better PRRSV vaccines. Experimental PRRSV vaccines, including live attenuated vaccines, recombinant vectors expressing PRRSV viral proteins, DNA vaccines and plant-made subunit vaccines, have been developed. However, the genetic and antigenic heterogeneity of the virus limits the value of almost all of the PRRSV vaccines tested. Developing a universal vaccine that can provide broad protection against circulating PRRSV strains has become a major challenge for current vaccine development. This paper reviews current status of PRRSV vaccine development and discusses strategies to develop a universal PRRSV vaccine.

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