Tropical Medicine and International Health

Women's health

There are important differences between men and women in the burden of infectious diseases and NCDs. MCH, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and HIV care and treatment programs provide population-wide longitudinal care for chronic diseases and should be used in delivering primary and preventive healthcare for women. 1426–1431

HPV16/18/45 accounted for two-thirds of the HPV types found in invasive cervical cancer in Mali and Senegal. HIV may play a role in the underlying HPV18 and HPV45 contribution to cervical cancer. 1432–1440

In pregnant Muslimas in Ningxia, China, an integrated intervention successfully reduced maternal mortality and improved the quality of care. 1441–1448

Child health

A study in Venezuela provides supportive evidence for applying the revised WHO recommendations on pediatric dosing of TB drugs, but follow-up studies are needed to establish plasma levels achieved by the increased doses. 1449–1456

Anaemic children in DRC were transfused blood too often, but at insufficient volume. In-hospital deaths were mainly due to co-morbidities.1457–1464

In Uganda, mothers' recall of birth weight was not precise but in absence of other data, recall of birth weight and size may have some value in epidemiological studies in settings such as this. 1465–1469

In children it is more efficient and more accurate to use the pooled method for classification of S. mansoni prevalence than the current standard method. 1470–1477


The future now holds a distinct possibility, globally, for substantially decreasing meningococcal disease regardless of infecting serogroup. 1478–1491

The future now holds a distinct possibility, globally, for substantially decreasing meningococcal disease regardless of infecting serogroup. 1492–1505

Drinking water

Sachet water has expanded drinking water access across West Africa, yet is generally ignored by development agencies. Sachets are an improved, but unsustainable, water source with implications for post-2015 monitoring of drinking water provision. 1506–1508


An assessment of the proportion of patients lost to programme between HIV diagnosis and start of ART in sub-Saharan Africa shows that monitoring and care in the pre-ART time period need improvement, with greater emphasis on patients not yet eligible for ART. 1509–1520

A significant rate of treponemal infection was found in HIV-infected individuals in West Africa, with RPR performing poorly as a screening assay, whilst enzyme immunoassays performed better. 1521–1526

Patients with unrecognised TB at the time of starting ART had worse CD4 recovery than patients whose TB was treated before starting ART. 1527–1533

Economics of disease

A large proportion of costs from acute pesticide poisoning are indirect costs from premature mortality. Restrictions on lethal pesticide availability and safer storage could reduce fatalities and cost. 1534–1543

Hypertension is a major public health problem in terms of morbidity and economic burden in rural southwest China 1544–1551

Appropriate use of medicines

There is limited research using indicators of quality use of medicines across Southeast Asia. To meet current medical challenges, indicators for non-communicable diseases are needed. 1552–1566

NCD monitoring

Routine registration of patients with chronic NCDs and reporting of outcomes can improve care. Successful cohort monitoring regarding diabetes and hypertension in Palestine refugees in Jordan warrants more widespread application. 1567–1568

Cohort analysis provides data about incidence and prevalence of DM at clinic level, clinical management performance and prevalence of serious morbidity. It needs to be more widely applied to monitor and manage chronic NCDs. 1569–1576