SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adeyemo A, Chen G, Zhou J et al. (2010) FTO genetic variation and association with obesity in West Africans and African Americans. Diabetes 59, 15491554.
  • Ainsworth B, Haskell W, Leon A et al. (1993) Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 25, 7180.
  • Arner P (1995) Differences in lipolysis between human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues. Annals of Medicine 27, 435438.
  • Asghar S, Khan A, Ali S et al. (2011) Incidence of diabetes in Asian-Indian subjects: a five year follow-up study from Bangladesh. Primary Care Diabetes 5, 117124.
  • Aspray T, Mugusi F, Rashid S et al. (2000) Rural and urban differences in diabetes prevalence in Tanzania: the role of obesity, physical inactivity and urban living. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 94, 637644.
  • Balde N, Diallo I, Balde M et al. (2007) Diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in rural and urban populations in Futa Jallon (Guinea): prevalence and associated risk factors. Diabetes Metabolism 33, 114120.
  • Bressler J, Kao W, Pankow J & Boerwinkle E (2010) Risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity is differentially associated with variation in FTO in whites and African-Americans in the ARIC study. PLoS ONE 5, e10521.
  • Cheng C, Ho C, Yang C, Huang Y, Lai C & Liaw Y (2010) Waist-to-hip ratio is a better anthropometric index than body mass index for predicting the risk of type 2 diabetes in Taiwanese population. Nutrition Research 30, 585593.
  • Chiu M, Austin P, Manuel D, Shah B & Tu J (2011) Deriving ethnic-specific BMI cutoff points for assessing diabetes risk. Diabetes Care 34, 17411748.
  • Danquah I, Bedu-Addo G & Mockenhaupt FP (2010) Type 2 diabetes mellitus and increased risk for malaria infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases 16, 16011604.
  • Danquah I, Bedu-Addo G, Terpe K et al. (2012) Diabetes mellitus type 2 in urban Ghana: characteristics and associated factors. BMC Public Health 12, 210.
  • Despres J, Lemieux I, Bergeron J et al. (2008) Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: contribution to global cardiometabolic risk. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 28, 10391049.
  • FAO (1975) Composition of Foods Commonly Used in Ghana. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
  • Fisch A, Pichard E, Prazuck T, Leblanc H, Sidibe Y & Brucker G (1987) Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus in the rural region of Mali (West Africa): a practical approach. Diabetologia 30, 859862.
  • Giday A (2010) Hypertension, obesity and central obesity in diabetics and non diabetics in Southern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 24, 145147.
  • Hennig B, Fulford A, Sirugo G et al. (2009) FTO gene variation and measures of body mass in an African population. BMC Medical Genetics 10, 21.
  • Huxley R, James W, Barzi F et al. (2008) Ethnic comparisons of the cross-sectional relationships between measures of body size with diabetes and hypertension. Obesity Reviews 9(Suppl 1), 5361.
  • Katzmarzyk P, Bray G, Greenway F et al. (2010) Racial differences in abdominal depot-specific adiposity in white and African American adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91, 715.
  • Katzmarzyk P, Bray G, Greenway F et al. (2011) Ethnic-specific BMI and waist circumference thresholds. Obesity (Silver Spring) 19, 12721278.
  • Kaur P, Radhakrishnan E, Sankarasubbaiyan S et al. (2008) A comparison of anthropometric indices for predicting hypertension and type 2 diabetes in a male industrial population of Chennai, South India. Ethnicity and Disease 18, 3136.
  • Lear S, Humphries K, Kohli S & Birmingham C (2007) The use of BMI and waist circumference as surrogates of body fat differs by ethnicity. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 28172824.
  • Lear S, James P, Ko G & Kumanyika S (2010) Appropriateness of waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio cutoffs for different ethnic groups. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 4261.
  • Mackay M, Haffner S, Wagenknecht L, D'agostino R Jr & Hanley A (2009) Prediction of type 2 diabetes using alternate anthropometric measures in a multi-ethnic cohort: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study. Diabetes Care 32, 956958.
  • Mbanya J, Motala A, Sobngwi E, Assah F & Enoru S (2010) Diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet 375, 22542266.
  • Misra A, Wasir J & Vikram N (2005) Waist circumference criteria for the diagnosis of abdominal obesity are not applicable uniformly to all populations and ethnic groups. Nutrition 21, 969976.
  • Motala A, Esterhuizen T, Gouws E, Pirie F & Omar M (2008) Diabetes and other disorders of glycemia in a rural South African community: prevalence and associated risk factors. Diabetes Care 31, 17831788.
  • Nishida C, Ko G & Kumanyika S (2010) Body fat distribution and noncommunicable diseases in populations: overview of the 2008 WHO Expert Consultation on Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 25.
  • Nyamdorj R, Qiao Q, Lam T et al. (2008) BMI compared with central obesity indicators in relation to diabetes and hypertension in Asians. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16, 16221635.
  • Okosun I, Rotimi C, Forrester T et al. (2000) Predictive value of abdominal obesity cut-off points for hypertension in blacks from west African and Caribbean island nations. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 24, 180186.
  • Park S, Goodpaster B, Strotmeyer E et al. (2006) Decreased muscle strength and quality in older adults with type 2 diabetes: the health, aging, and body composition study. Diabetes 55, 18131818.
  • Qiao Q & Nyamdorj R (2010a) Is the association of type II diabetes with waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio stronger than that with body mass index? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 3034.
  • Qiao Q & Nyamdorj R (2010b) The optimal cutoff values and their performance of waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio for diagnosing type II diabetes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 2329.
  • Smaldone A (2008) Glycemic control and Hemoglobinopathy: when A1C may not be reliable. Diabetes Spectrum, 21, 4649.
  • Snijder M, Dekker J, Visser M et al. (2003) Associations of hip and thigh circumferences independent of waist circumference with the incidence of type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77, 11921197.
  • Snijder M, Zimmet P, Visser M, Dekker J, Seidell J & Shaw J (2004) Independent and opposite associations of waist and hip circumferences with diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia: the AusDiab Study. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 28, 402409.
  • Snounou G, Viriyakosol S, Jarra W, Thaithong S & Brown K (1993) Identification of the four human malaria parasite species in field samples by the polymerase chain reaction and detection of a high prevalence of mixed infections. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 58, 283292.
  • Stevens J, Couper D, Pankow J et al. (2001) Sensitivity and specificity of anthropometrics for the prediction of diabetes in a biracial cohort. Obesity Research 9, 696705.
  • Vazquez G, Duval S, Jacobs D, Jr & Silventoinen K (2007) Comparison of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio in predicting incident diabetes: a meta-analysis. Epidemiologic Reviews 29, 115128.
  • Wagner D & Heyward V (2000) Measures of body composition in blacks and whites: a comparative review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, 13921402.
  • Wai W, Dhami R, Gelaye B et al. (2011) Comparison of measures of adiposity in identifying cardiovascular disease risk among ethiopian adults. Obesity (Silver Spring) 20, 18871895.
  • Wang Z, Rowley K, Piers L & O'dea K (2007) Anthropometric indices and their relationship with diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia in Australian aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 14, 172178.
  • WHO (1999) Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complication: Report of a WHO Consultation. Part 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. WHO, Geneva.
  • WHO (2011) Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation. WHO, Geneva.
  • Youden W (1950) Index for rating diagnostic tests. Cancer 3, 3235.
  • Ziraba A, Fotso J & Ochako R (2009) Overweight and obesity in urban Africa: a problem of the rich or the poor? BMC Public Health 9, 465.