Tropical Medicine & International Health


Drinking water and sanitation is a human right. Hygiene delivers many of the health benefits associated with water and sanitation and yet is missing from the Millennium Development Goals. 246–249

A hygiene intervention following the HACCP approach significantly reduced weaning food contamination in Bangladesh. 250–258

In Pakistan, families randomized to intensive handwashing promotion were more likely to maintain well-stocked handwashing stations and demonstrate greater handwashing knowledge than control families 5 years after the intervention. 259–267


A quantitative real time PCR assay using slit aspirate specimens to avoid invasive sampling procedures gives a reliable diagnosis of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. 268–275

Child health

MTCT risk factors in Brazil are non-use of antiretroviral during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, prematurity and breastfeeding. Public health measures are necessary to apply a globally recognized protocol. 276–285

Nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization is common in Tanzanian HIV-exposed infants. The significant prevalence of pneumococcal vaccine serotypes colonizing this pediatric population justifies the use of the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine. 286–295

The relatively high seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus infection in children from Cochabamba suggests that vaccination could be beneficial. 296–302

A review of measures to reduce neonatal mortality concludes that effective action is possible, but innovative implementation will be required if these preventable deaths are to be avoided. 303–312

Sickle cell disease

A systematic review explores currently known interactions between sickle cell disease and malaria, malaria chemoprophylaxis in SCD, and alternative strategies in the reduction of malaria-associated morbidity and mortality in patients with SCD. 313–327


A generalized preventive care package for HIV-infected adults was successfully adapted for Botswana by combining clinic-specific prevalence data, national guidelines, regional literature and assessment of public-sector resources. 328–343

HIV infected Ugandan women initiated on an NVP-based ART regimen had similar immunological treatment outcomes irrespective of previous NVP exposure. CD4 cell count prior to initiating HAART was a key prognostic factor for successful long-term immunologic treatment outcomes. 344–351


In Vietnam, neurocysticercosis infections occur among people suffering from epilepsy and headaches. Combining imaging techniques with serology should allow accurate estimation of the burden of Taenia solium in the country. 352–356

Mortality surveillance

The Moroccan MDSS is a powerful tool for understanding the causes and circumstances of maternal deaths. Problems remain regarding coverage of the system, decentralisation of data management and completeness of medical records. 357–365

Lassa virus

A seroprevalence study in a sub-population of recently febrile patients from Upper Guinea indicates that Lassa fever is a significant public health problem and that hantavirus infections occur in the region. 366–371

International aid

Most donors of international aid have robust tobacco control in place at home, yet they continue to promote the tobacco industry and avoid supporting tobacco control. Are donors culpable for their investments in promoting tobacco? 372–376


The first alumni survey of the MIH programme offered through tropEd suggests that competencies gained by graduates are relevant for their current careers, but also recommends offering better guidance to students planning modules and improving administration. 377–384