Tropical Medicine & International Health

Use of medicines

Two decades of evidence in developing countries show continued inappropriate use of medicines, few well-designed intervention studies and greater effectiveness of multi-component interventions than single-component ones. 656–664

Differences in the process of implementing the prohibition of over-the-counter antibiotics sales account for the varying impact on antibiotic consumption in four Latin American countries. Sustainability over time is a challenge. 665–673

Maternal health

Seven knowledge gaps prevent effective delivery and monitoring of family planning services. These front-line perspectives should inform the global agenda on investments in family planning research. 674–677

Medico-social pathways of obstetric fistula patients are characterized by their length and mixed surgical outcomes. Different research perspectives could help grasp the range ofpatients' experiences and favour customized care. 678–686

A mid-level, community-based workforce shows promise in reaching poor rural Ghanaian women. Restrictions on scope of practice for community nurses should be reconsidered to improve maternal and child health services access. 687–695

In urban Zimbabwe intimate partner violence during pregnancy is common. It is associated with gender inequalities, problem drinking, partner's control of woman's reproductive health, and risky sexual practices; but not with HIV status. 696–711

The prevalence of placenta praevia is low at around 5 per 1000 pregnancies. There is some evidence suggestive of regional variation in its prevalence, but it is not possible to determine from existing data whether this is due to true ethnic differences or other unknown factor(s). 712–724


Retrospective cohort monitoring, as done in TB control, can be used to monitor treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis in primary health care settings, to evaluate effectiveness of the program. 725–733

Human resource assessment using Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) helps to determine the amount of disposable staff time for active case detection in kala-azar control. 734–742


Japanese Encephalitis has been mainly known as a rural disease; however, investigations in urban areas of Delhi (India) have established for the first time indigenous transmission of JE in the city. 743–749


Major changes in serum Th2-type chemokine levels in individuals infected with intestinal helminths and/ or S. mansoni result in significantly higher CCL11 and CCL17 concentrations, both before treatment and after reinfection. 750–760


There is a possible increasing risk of re-introduction of malaria to Sri Lanka from imported cases. Enhanced surveillance activities and the increase in international travel havecontributed to an increase in recorded cases. 761–768


Nurse-led ART for patients with HIV/AIDS was associated with higher mean health service costs than doctor-led care, with small effects on primary outcomes. The associated uncertainty was high. 769–777

Sleeping sickness

Modified Simple Centrifugation and disposable counting chambers can increase accuracy of parasite detection and cell counting in cerebrospinal fluid for assessing disease stage and treatment outcome in sleeping sickness patients. 778–782


Mothers of young children in rural Bangladesh preferred a redesigned ‘mini-hoe’ to remove and dispose of liquid feces to traditional tools. Promoting modified local tools may contribute to improving environmental sanitation and health. 783–793