Tropical Medicine & International Health

Water and sanitation

Standard asset indices provide a reasonably robust measure of disparities in improved sanitation, although overestimation is possible. Separate setting wealth quintiles reveal important disparities in urban areas. Estimates and disparities in household level coverage of improved sanitation can underestimate coverage for children under 5. 2–13

Research demonstrates the potential of black soldier fly larvae in reducing human faecal waste, with the aim of improving sanitation in low-income countries. 14–22

New medicines registration

If the high demand for quality medicines in low income countries is to be met, the stringent review procedures currently used need to enlarge their disease coverage. To improve registration, EMA Article-58 should involve LICs. LIC regulatory activities must not be fully resigned to stringent review procedures. 23–36


An immunoagglutination test based on the latex-CP1 complex could be used as a screening method for Chagas disease. This test is rapid, easy to implement and could be used under field conditions; but its results should be confirmed by reference techniques like ELISA, HAI, and IFI. 37–46

Noncommunicable diseases

As a study from Médecins sans Frontières shows, good management of hypertension and diabetes mellitus can be achieved in an informal settlement. Theintervention appears feasible to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. 47–57

Assessing the glycation of nail proteins is a simple, affordable method for diagnosing diabetes in remote areas since the pre-analytical phase is extremely robust. 58–64

Health policy

In Ghana, stronger national engagement for family planning should result in improved funding of the program and the promotion of long-acting and permanent methods. 65–73

To promote adolescents' informed sexual decision-making, sexuality education programmes in Indonesia may benefit from addressing perceived behavioural control, subjective norms of peers and attitudes. 74–82

Maternal health

HIV is poorly understood as a cause of death in pregnant/postpartum women. Modeled and empirical estimates of the burden vary greatly. Routinely reporting all-cause pregnancy-related mortality would improve empirical estimates. 83–97

The Ghanaian National Health Insurance Scheme should be strengthened and resourced as it may act as an important tool for increasing antenatal care attendance among women in Ghana. 98–106

Quality of care

Focus group discussions about surgery in Sierra Leone discovered the concept of turning ‘half-human’ and revealed mainly negative attitudes to surgical scars. However, cost remains the biggest barrier to surgical care. 107–116


TMPRSS6 736(V) is comparatively rare among Rwandan children and may only slightly contribute to lowHb concentrations. Preventable causes of anaemia, notably ID and P. falciparum infection, largely outweigh its impact, and need to be addressed to improve the haematological status of children. 117–122