Global assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water based on a systematic review
Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014
© 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine and International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Tropical Medicine & International Health
Volume 19, Issue 8, pages 917–927, August 2014
How to Cite
Bain, R., Cronk, R., Hossain, R., Bonjour, S., Onda, K., Wright, J., Yang, H., Slaymaker, T., Hunter, P., Prüss-Ustün, A. and Bartram, J. (2014), Global assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water based on a systematic review. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 19: 917–927. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12334
- Issue published online: 30 JUN 2014
- Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014
- WaterAid UK
- World Health Organization
- 2012) Accounting for water quality in monitoring access to safe drinking-water as part of the Millennium Development Goals: lessons from five countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 90, 228–235. , , , , & (
- 2014) Fecal contamination of drinking water in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Medicine 11, e1001644. , , , & (
- 2013) Sanitation: a global estimate of sewerage connections without treatment and the resulting impact on MDG progress. Environmental Science & Technology 47, 1994–2000. , & (
- 2009) Introduction to Meta-Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, U.K. (
- 2012) High adherence is necessary to realize health gains from water quality interventions. PLoS One 7, e36735. & (
- 1996) The public and domestic domains in the transmission of disease. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1, 27–34. , , , & (
- 1966) The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research 1, 245–276. (
- 2014) Estimating the impact of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene on the global burden of disease: evolving and alternative methods. Tropical Medicine and International Health [Epub ahead of print]. (
- 2005) Water Safety Plans: Managing Drinking-Water Quality from Catchment to Consumer. WHO, Geneva. , , et al. (
- 1997) The Coliform Index and Waterborne Disease: Problems of Microbial Drinking Water Assessment. E & FN SPON, London, New York. & (
- 2011) How safe are the global water coverage figures? Case study from Madhya Pradesh, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 176, 561–574. , , & (
- 2012) Benefits of Water Safety plans: microbiology, compliance, and public health. Environmental Science & Technology 46, 7782–7789. , , , & (
- 2003) Risk factors contributing to microbiological contamination of shallow groundwater in Kampala, Uganda. Water Research 37, 3421–3429. , , , & (
- 2012) Benefits trickling away: the health impact of extending access to piped water and sanitation in urban Yemen. Journal of Development Effectiveness 4, 537–565. , , & (
- 2013) Comparing microbial water quality in an intermittent and continuous piped water supply. Water Research 47, 5176–5188. & (
- 2012) A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380, 2224–2260. , , et al. (
- 2010) State of the quality of drinking water in households in children under five years in Peru, 2007-2010. Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública 27, 506–511. , , & (
- 2012) Global access to safe water: accounting for water quality and the resulting impact on MDG progress. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 9, 880–894. , & (
- 2014) Burden of diarrhoeal disease from water, sanitation and hygiene in low resource settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 147 countries. Tropical Medicine and International Health 19, [Epub ahead of print]. , , et al. (
- 2010) Estimating the scope of household water treatment in low- and medium-income countries. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 82, 289–300. & (
- 2013) Is drinking water from ‘improved sources’ really safe? A case study in the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon). Journal of Water and Health 11, 748–761. , , , & (
- 2012) A global Water Quality Index and hot-deck imputation of missing data. Ecological Indicators 17, 108–119. , , & (
- 2004) Water quality deterioration: a study of household drinking water quality in rural Honduras. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 14, 273–283. , & (
- UNCESCR (2010) General Comment No. 15. The right to water.
- UNECE (2013) Protocol on Water and Health.
- United Nations (2010) Resolution on Human Right to Water and Sanitation. Resolution, U.G.A. (ed).
- United Nations (2013) Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability.
- 1993) All coliforms are not created equal – a comparison of the effects of water source and in-house water contamination on infantile diarrheal disease. Water Resources Research 29, 1983–1995. & (
- WHO (2011) Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. WHO, Geneva.
- WHO/UNICEF (2006) Core questions on drinking-water and sanitation for household surveys.
- WHO/UNICEF (2011) Drinking Water: Equity, Safety and Sustainability. WHO/UNICEF, Geneva, Switzerland.
- WHO/UNICEF (2012) Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-Water: 2012 Update. WHO/UNICEF, Geneva, Switzerland.
- WHO/UNICEF (2013a) Proposal for Consolidated Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Targets, Indicators and Definitions, WHO/UNICEF, www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/resources/A-proposal-for-consolidated-WASH-goals-targets-definitions-and-indicators_version7_Nov22_final.pdf (Accessed Nov 2013).
- WHO/UNICEF (2013b) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation.
- 2013) An exploration of multilevel modeling for estimating access to drinking-water and sanitation. Journal of Water and Health 11, 64–77. , & (
- World Bank (2011a) World Development Indicators. World Bank Group, Washington, DC.
- World Bank (2011b) Worldwide Governance Indicators. World Bank Group, Washington, DC.
- World Bank (2011c) Country Profiles and International Human Development Indicators. World Bank Group, Washington, DC.
- World Bank (2011d) EdStats-Education Statistics. World Bank Group, Washington, DC.
- World Bank (2013) Country and Lending Groups. World Bank Group, Washington, DC.
- 2004) Household drinking water in developing countries: a systematic review of microbiological contamination between source and point-of-use. Tropical Medicine and International Health 9, 106–117. , & (